Arlington, MA, United States
Arlington, MA, United States

Time filter

Source Type

Cotter P.F.,Cotter Laboratory | Bakst M.R.,U.S. Department of Agriculture
Poultry Science | Year: 2017

Mott cells are atypical plasmacytes recognized microscopically by endoplasmic reticulum (ER) distensions (Russell bodies) a result of retained secretory product (antibody). Originally associated with parasitism, they are observed in a broad spectrum of immunopathology, sometimes involving hypergammaglobulinemia. Few descriptions of Mott cells appear in avian literature. The purpose of the manuscript is to provide examples identified by light microscopy in three poultry species. Transmission electron micrographs (TEM) of plasmacytes from the Turkey oviduct mucosa are included for comparison with Mott cell light microscopic images. Wright's stained blood and bone marrow from commercial and specific pathogen free (SPF) chickens, ducks, and Turkeys are the sources. Mott cell positive samples commonly occurred with leukocytosis or leukemoid reactions, polymicrobial bacteremia, and fungemia. Atypical granulocytes and leukocytes regularly accompanied Mott cells. It is proposed that circulating Mott cells are "sentinels" indicative of stress, dyscrasia, and pathology. Moreover, Mott cells, like other atypia, complicate the interpretation of simple heterophil/lymphocyte (H/L) ratios. As Mott cells are defective plasmacytes these observations address hematology, immunology, pathology, and welfare issues. © 2016 Poultry Science Association Inc.


PubMed | Cotter Laboratory, Purdue University and Sichuan Agricultural University
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Poultry science | Year: 2016

Two experiments were conducted to determine the dietary threonine (Thr) requirement of Pekin ducks from hatch to 14 d of age. In experiment 1, practical corn-soybean meal diets were formulated to contain 0.78, 0.84, 0.90, 0.96, and 1.02% Thr (0.74, 0.83, 0.88, 0.92, and 1.00% Thr on an analyzed basis). In experiment 2, corn-soybean meal diets supplemented with 11 crystalline amino acids were formulated to contain 0.60, 0.70, 0.80, 0.90, 1.00, and 1.10% Thr (0.60, 0.75, 0.89, 0.95, 1.01, and 1.09% Thr on an analyzed basis). In both experiments, diets were fed to 8 replicate cages with 6 male ducks per cage. Body weight and feed intake from each cage were recorded weekly. At 14 d of age, breast meat, ileal digesta, and serum were collected to determine breast meat yield, mucin secretion, and serology parameters. In both studies, the estimated Thr requirement (expressed as % dietary Thr basis) for 14 d BW and BW gain (BWG) by quadratic broken-line (QBL) regression were similar, which were 0.87 and 0.86%, respectively. Additional measures in both experiments resulted in Thr requirements via QBL regression in rank order of crude mucin secretion < breast meat yield < serum immune activity. Summing up the estimates from both studies, the Thr requirement ranged from a low of 0.81% to maximize feed intake (FI) to a high of 1.00% to maximize serum Rb L100 by QBL regression. Correspondingly, the Thr requirement varied between a low of 0.90% to maximize crude mucin secretion on a dry matter intake (DMI) basis and a high of 0.98% to maximize feed-to-gain when using quadratic regression.


Chen X.,Purdue University | Horn N.,JBS Inc | Cotter P.F.,Cotter Laboratory | Applegate T.J.,Purdue University
Poultry Science | Year: 2014

A 14-d study was conducted to evaluate the effects of cultured aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) on performance, serum biochemistry, serum natural antibody and complement activity, and hepatic gene expression parameters in Pekin ducklings. A total of 144 male Pekin ducklings were weighed, tagged, and randomly allotted to 4 dietary treatments containing 4 concentrations of AFB1 (0, 0.11, 0.14, and 0.21 mg/kg) from 0 to 14 d of age (6 cages per diet; 6 ducklings per cage). Compared with the control group, there was a 10.9, 31.7, and 47.4% (P < 0.05) decrease in cumulative BW gain with 0.11, 0.14, and 0.21 mg of AFB1/kg of diet, respectively, but feed efficiency was not affected. Increasing concentrations of AFB1 reduced cumulative BW gain and feed intake both linearly and quadratically, and regression equations were developed with r2 ≥0.73. Feeding 0.11 to 0.21 mg of AFB1/kg reduced serum glucose, creatinine, albumin, total protein, globulin, Ca, P, and creatine phosphokinase linearly, whereas serum urea N, Cl, alkaline phosphatase, and aspartate amino transferase concentrations increased linearly with increasing AFB1 (P < 0.05). Additionally, 0.11 to 0.21 mg of AFB1/kg diets impaired classical and alternative complement pathways in the duckling serum when tested by lysis of rabbit, human type O, and horse erythrocytes, and decreased rabbit and horse agglutinins (P < 0.05). Liver peroxisome proliferator activated receptor α (PPARα) expression was linearly downregulated by AFB1 (P < 0.01). Results from this study indicate that for every 0.10 mg/kg increase in dietary AFB1, cumulative feed intake and BW gain decrease approximately 230 and 169 g per duckling from hatch to 14 d; and that AFB 1 at very low concentrations can significantly impair liver function and gene expression, and innate immune dynamics in Pekin ducklings. © 2014 Poultry Science Association Inc.


Cotter P.F.,Cotter Laboratory | Heller E.D.,Hebrew University of Jerusalem
International Journal of Poultry Science | Year: 2016

Heterophil/lymphocyte (H/L ratio) statistics and total white blood cell counts (TWBC) determined by light microscopic examination of blood from isolator raised specific pathogen free (SPF) chicks indicated complex hemograms. Brachial vein blood (N =12) obtained at 6 wk was spread into films, air dried, post-fixed in MeOH and Wright’s stained. H/L 1 ratios were calculated by dividing all heterophil types, typical (HT) variant (HV) and classic (HC) by the number of small (resting) lymphocytes (Ls) H/L 1 = (HT + HV + HC)/(Ls). A second ratio (H/L 2) obtained by dividing heterophils by all lymphocytes (resting, reactive and atypical, (HT + HV + HC)/ (Ls + Lm) was calculated; as was the H/L 1-H/L 2 difference (ΔH/L). TWBC’s were determined from the same films. Sorting, non-random distribution of cells and atypia affected all H/L statistics. The mean H/L 1 ratio from standard differential counts (SDC) = 0.17 and H/L 2 = 0.16. Edge based ratios (EB) were ~8 times the SDC values. Atypical cells were in all samples and more common in EB counts. The H/L ratios and ΔH/L calculated from SDC and EB values were significantly different (p<0.02). Collectively these observations support earlier conclusions regarding the lack of sensitivity of a single H/L ratio, without a TWBC, or consideration of atypia to estimate welfare. Furthermore, hemograms of SPF chickens reared in isolation may be complex. © Asian Network for Scientific Information, 2016.


To measure stress in caged hens, differential counts of their wing vein blood were used to determine heterophil/lymphocyte (H/L) ratios and total white blood cell counts (TWBC). The H/L values of 18-wk samples from conventionally caged hens (CC) were not statistically different from hens raised in aviaries (AV) when calculated by either of 2 methods (H/L 1 and H/L 2). However, there was a high degree of variation among samples within each cage type. The TWBC data and hematology indicated leukocytosis, leukemoid reactions, and a high frequency of atypia. Reactive lymphocytes, large plasmacytoid lymphocytes, cyanophils, coccinocytes, and atypical heterophils were common. Analysis of 77-wk data indicated significant differences among 3 cage types. The H/L 1 of enriched caged (EN) hens was twice (0.91) that of either AV (0.33) or CC (0.44) hens (P < 0.01); the H/L 2 values were also highest for EN (0.46) versus AV (0.29) and CC (0.34; P <0.01). As was the case with 18-wk samples, TWBC distributions and hematological data indicated leukocytosis, leukemoid reactions, and a high frequency of atypia. Among the likely reasons for the hematological observations was the occurrence of polymicrobial bacteremia and fungemia, both of which could account for high TWBC and atypical cells. Collectively, these observations challenge the general application of the H/L ratio method when applied alone as an indicator of stress and welfare of hens caged in modern systems. © © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Poultry Science Association.


Sera obtained from commercial drakes on days 14 and 38 of age were tested by microtiter for the capacity to agglutinate and lyse rabbit (Rb) and human (HuO) erythrocytes. Three agglutination types, differing by strength, were recognized: HA1 (strong), HA2 (weak), and HA45 (very weak).Two degrees of lysis: L 100 (complete) and L 50 (partial), measured complement activity. Day 14 sera agglutinated Rb (average log2 titers: HA1 = 1.5, HA2 = 4.1) and lysed Rb (average log2 titers: L 100 = 2, L 50 = 2.5) but only 8/115 (~9%) agglutinated HuO (HA45 = 0.4) while most (>80%) lysed HuO (average log2 titers: L 100 = 1.3, L 50 = 1.8). Both Rb and HuO agglutination and lysis titers were higher by d 38. At that age, all ducks lysed HuO and 50% of ducks acquired a capacity to agglutinate these cells with more strength. However, the quality of HuO agglutination could not be differentiated into HA1 or HA2 types. Average d 38 log2 titers of all measures were Rb: HA1 = 4, HA2 = 8.4, L 100 = 3, and L 50 = 4; and HuO: HA = 2.8, L 100 = 3.9, and L 50 = 1.2. The quality of the Rb agglutination suggested the participation of both IgM and standard-sized IgY antibodies. Lysis of Rb may occur by both classic and alternate complement pathways. The HuO lysis appears to depend primarily on the alternate complement pathway. It is suggested that multiple measurement systems such as these offer a practical way of obtaining information on immunity in experiments where the chief interest lies elsewhere. © 2012 Poultry Science Association Inc.


Cotter P.F.,Cotter Laboratory
Poultry Science | Year: 2015

Lymphocytes comprise a family of cells descended from bursa and thymus progenitors whose differentiation is not possible by standard hematology. However, if they are small with a nuclear/cytoplasmic ratio near 1, they are "resting" at least in the microscopic sense. Activation, increases their size, and decreases the nuclear:cytoplasmic (N:C) ratio. Reactive cells are infrequent in healthy animal blood. Their presence indicates an immune response in progress, inflammation, stress, or other pathology. Here the purpose is to describe unusual leukocytes and lymphocytes found in the periphery of commercial hens. Samples of Wright stained blood films obtained from commercial hens housed in modern cages are the data source. Photomicroscopy used an Olympus CX41 light microscope equipped with an Infinity-2 1.4 megapixel charge-coupled device (CCD) Universal Serial Bus (USB) 2.0 camera, at 100× (oil) magnification. Collectively these cells illustrate a continuum between mildly "reactive" to grossly "atypical" states. The description begins with normal resting cells, proceeds to mildly atypical, and concludes with grossly abnormal cells. Bone marrow cells, a source of plasmacytes, are included for comparison. Examples of circulating plasmacytes, large plasmacytoid lymphocytes (LPL), foam cells, and cells expressing properties of more than one lineage are included. The importance of these observations lies in their contribution to cytology, hematology, and immunology. Last, because of the wide use of heterophil:lymphocyte ratios (H:L) as a stress measure they bear directly the welfare issues of caged animals. When cells similar to the types described here are in blood, they indicate stress independent of H:L or other standard measures. © 2015 Poultry Science Association Inc.


Cotter P.F.,Cotter Laboratory
Poultry Science | Year: 2015

Atypical plasmacytes having distinctive cytoplasmic vacuoles (Mott cells) were detected in 77/1,000 (7.7%) of commercial hens housed conventionally, in aviaries, or in enriched environments. The earliest Mott positive peripheral blood samples were at placement (18 wk) from 2 consecutive commercial flocks. Additional samples obtained at 32, 48, 56, and 77 wk were positive. Most Mott cells came from hens with high total white blood cell counts as a component of leukocytosis. However, Mott cells were found in hens with low total white blood cell counts, and low heterophil/lymphocyte ratios. Phagocytosis of bacteria by some Mott cells was a remarkable feature. Many of the Mott positive hens had polymicrobial bacteremia and a few had fungemia likely accounting for the leukocytosis. In other cases, free-swimming bacteria were located near to a Mott cell. These atypical cells were in the peripheral blood samples from other poultry; a tom at slaughter (17 wk), experimental toms (10 wk), and experimental ducklings. Examples are included. As descriptions of avian Mott cells are few, the purpose of describing these cells is their contribution to hematology, immunology, and cytology. Mott cells like other atypia are sentinels, frank cytological indicators of an unusual hemogram, and consequently infer stress. Therefore, they bear directly on welfare issues. © 2015 Poultry Science Association Inc.


PubMed | Cotter Laboratory
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Poultry science | Year: 2015

Lymphocytes comprise a family of cells descended from bursa and thymus progenitors whose differentiation is not possible by standard hematology. However, if they are small with a nuclear/cytoplasmic ratio near 1, they are resting at least in the microscopic sense. Activation, increases their size, and decreases the nuclear:cytoplasmic (N:C) ratio. Reactive cells are infrequent in healthy animal blood. Their presence indicates an immune response in progress, inflammation, stress, or other pathology. Here the purpose is to describe unusual leukocytes and lymphocytes found in the periphery of commercial hens. Samples of Wright stained blood films obtained from commercial hens housed in modern cages are the data source. Photomicroscopy used an Olympus CX41 light microscope equipped with an Infinity-2 1.4 megapixel charge-coupled device (CCD) Universal Serial Bus (USB) 2.0 camera, at 100 (oil) magnification. Collectively these cells illustrate a continuum between mildly reactive to grossly atypical states. The description begins with normal resting cells, proceeds to mildly atypical, and concludes with grossly abnormal cells. Bone marrow cells, a source of plasmacytes, are included for comparison. Examples of circulating plasmacytes, large plasmacytoid lymphocytes (LPL), foam cells, and cells expressing properties of more than one lineage are included. The importance of these observations lies in their contribution to cytology, hematology, and immunology. Last, because of the wide use of heterophil:lymphocyte ratios (H:L) as a stress measure they bear directly the welfare issues of caged animals. When cells similar to the types described here are in blood, they indicate stress independent of H:L or other standard measures.


PubMed | Cotter Laboratory
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Poultry science | Year: 2015

Atypical plasmacytes having distinctive cytoplasmic vacuoles (Mott cells) were detected in 77/1,000 (7.7%) of commercial hens housed conventionally, in aviaries, or in enriched environments. The earliest Mott positive peripheral blood samples were at placement (18 wk) from 2 consecutive commercial flocks. Additional samples obtained at 32, 48, 56, and 77 wk were positive. Most Mott cells came from hens with high total white blood cell counts as a component of leukocytosis. However, Mott cells were found in hens with low total white blood cell counts, and low heterophil/lymphocyte ratios. Phagocytosis of bacteria by some Mott cells was a remarkable feature. Many of the Mott positive hens had polymicrobial bacteremia and a few had fungemia likely accounting for the leukocytosis. In other cases, free-swimming bacteria were located near to a Mott cell. These atypical cells were in the peripheral blood samples from other poultry; a tom at slaughter (17 wk), experimental toms (10 wk), and experimental ducklings. Examples are included.As descriptions of avian Mott cells are few, the purpose of describing these cells is their contribution to hematology, immunology, and cytology. Mott cells like other atypia are sentinels, frank cytological indicators of an unusual hemogram, and consequently infer stress. Therefore, they bear directly on welfare issues.

Loading Cotter Laboratory collaborators
Loading Cotter Laboratory collaborators