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Jackson S.,Costain Energy and Process
Chemical Engineer | Year: 2011

The two examples presented here give an outline of how BAT principles can be used to guide process-design selection. It is important to remember that each of the process units considered also contain many equipment items that have design alternatives with varying environmental impact (eg, control-valve selection). As part of the environmental-review process for a complete plant design, all available technology and equipment options should be understood and BAT principles applied. Regardless of the methodology applied in the environmental-review process, the important steps that need to be followed include: identifying and understanding the alternatives and their environmental aspects, quantifying the impacts, comparing technology options and concluding with a robust BAT justification, including cost-benefit analysis when required. Source

Jackson S.,Costain Energy and Process
Chemical Engineer | Year: 2011

Process engineers will often need to justify process selection against environmental performance as part of design development. In the UK, this justification must be made against the principle of best available techniques (BAT) as set out in the Integrated Pollution Prevention and Control directive. A discussion covers The evaluation process required to justify BAT using two gas-processing examples, i.e., VOC recovery from tanker loading and energy recovery from pressure letdown; environmental design requirements; environmental review process; identifying environmental risks; an risk assessments carried out as part of the comparing options and identifying BAT. Source

Besong M.T.,University of Nottingham | Maroto-Valer M.M.,University of Nottingham | Maroto-Valer M.M.,Heriot - Watt University | Finn A.J.,Costain Energy and Process
International Journal of Greenhouse Gas Control | Year: 2013

Oxy-fuel combustion is a promising technology for capturing carbon dioxide (CO2) from power plants by generating a flue gas which is predominantly CO2 and water vapour (which can be removed by condensation and drying). Other diluents (Ar, O2 and N2) and trace contaminants (SO2, SO3, NO, NO2, CO, etc.) will also be present in the oxy-fuel derived CO2-stream and have to be removed prior to transportation and storage. This flue gas composition makes low temperature physical separation a promising technology for CO2 capture. The aim of this paper is to evaluate low temperature processes for producing high purity, high pressure CO2 from oxy-fuel combustion flue gas through simulation and modelling in Aspen HYSYS using different patent applications filed by COSTAIN as basis. The processes are based on phase separation using simple flash units, integrated with the compression process. Excellent energy recovery is achieved by exploiting the cold duty of the process streams to supply the required refrigeration so that the overall power consumption is low.The capture process shows good performance when treating flue gas of high CO2 concentration, with purity of over 98%, recovery rate over 93%, and power consumption of 165kWh/tCO2 captured. For low CO2 concentration (such as with a retrofit), a lower CO2 recovery is obtained (approximately 85%) so that a small amount of further processing, e.g. by a physical solvent would be required to increase the CO2 capture. The effect of design parameters on performance including CO2 product purity, recovery rate and specific power consumption has been assessed. By optimizing process conditions, an optimum or near-optimum design has been generated taking into account the operating constraints of the equipment. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. Source

Jackson S.,Costain Energy and Process
Hydrocarbon Engineering | Year: 2011

Plant operators in the UK require an Environmental Permit (EP), which includes the principle of best available techniques (BAT) to be applied to the design for any process listed within the Integrated Pollution Prevention & Control (IPPC) directive. To demonstrate BAT, the process designer must understand all environmental aspects associated with a process. An important step towards a sound design is to carry out environmental impacts identification (ENVID) assessment. A BAT report provides a commentary on the justification for the final ranking of options and justifying the basis used to compare cross media effects is especially important, as such comparisons can be complex. BAT justification of glycol absorption can be made based on the relative performance of the two schemes in terms of energy consumption and waste generation. Source

Nawaz M.,Costain Energy and Process | Jobson M.,University of Manchester | Finn A.,Costain Energy and Process
12AIChE - 2012 AIChE Spring Meeting and 8th Global Congress on Process Safety, Conference Proceedings | Year: 2012

A discussion on a demethanizer process, which was characterized by interactions between the complex distillation column and other flowsheet units, including the turbo-expander, flash units, multistream exchangers, and refrigeration system, covers a systematic approach for demethanizer flowsheet synthesis to generate cost-effective designs; a semi-rigorous boundary value method for the design of complex demethanizer columns for application within an optimization framework for process synthesis and evaluation; a simplified flowsheet simulation model based on shortcut models to account for various configurations and inter-connections in the demethanizer process; a methodology accounting for heat integration in multistream exchangers; a generalized superstructure for demethanizer flowsheet synthesis that includes various structural combinations in addition to the operational parameters; application of a stochastic optimization technique, simulated annealing, to optimize the superstructure and generate energy-efficient and cost-effective flowsheets; and a case study relevant to natural gas processing to apply the synthesis methodology. This is an abstract of a paper presented at the 2012 AIChE Spring National Meeting and 8th Global Congress on Process Safety (Houston, TX 4/1-5/2012). Source

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