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PubMed | Cosmetic Ingredient Review Expert Panel Member, Former Director, Cosmetic Ingredient Review and Cosmetic Ingredient Review Senior Scientific Analyst Writer
Type: Journal Article | Journal: International journal of toxicology | Year: 2015

The Cosmetic Ingredient Review Expert Panel (Panel) reviewed the safety of 16 galactomannans as used in cosmetics. These ingredients are legume polysaccharides that function mostly as hair/skin-conditioning agents and viscosity-increasing agents in cosmetic products. Their substantial molecular sizes suggest that skin penetration of these ingredients would be unlikely. The Panel concluded that these galactomannans are safe in the present practices of use and concentration described in this safety assessment.


Burnett C.L.,Cosmetic Ingredient Review
International journal of toxicology | Year: 2013

The Cosmetic Ingredient Review Expert Panel (Panel) reviewed the safety of α-amino acids, which function primarily as hair- and skin-conditioning agents in cosmetic products. The safety of α-amino acids as direct food additives has been well established based on extensive research through acute and chronic dietary exposures. The Panel focused its review on dermal irritation and sensitization data relevant to the use of these ingredients in topical cosmetics. The Panel concluded that α-amino acids were safe as cosmetic ingredients in the practices of use and concentration of this safety assessment.


Burnett C.L.,Cosmetic Ingredient Review | Bergfeld W.F.,Cosmetic Ingredient Review | Belsito D.V.,Cosmetic Ingredient Review | Klaassen C.D.,Cosmetic Ingredient Review | And 5 more authors.
International Journal of Toxicology | Year: 2010

Methylisothiazolinone (MIT) is a heterocyclic organic compound used as a preservative in cosmetics and personal care products in concentrations up to 0.01%. MIT is a colorless, clear liquid with a mild odor that is completely soluble in water; mostly soluble in acetonitrile, methanol, and hexane; and slightly soluble in xylene. Consistent with its solubility, dermal penetration is low. The Cosmetic Ingredient Review Expert Panel noted the in vitro evidence of neurotoxicity but concluded that the absence of any neurotoxicity findings in the many in vivo studies, including subchronic, chronic, and reproductive and developmental animal studies, suggests that MIT would not be neurotoxic as used in cosmetics. Although recognizing that MIT was a sensitizer in both animal and human studies, the panel concluded that there is a threshold dose response and that cosmetic products formulated to contain concentrations of MIT at 100 ppm (0.01%) or less would not be expected to pose a sensitization risk. Accordingly, MIT may be safely used as a preservative in cosmetics up to that concentration. © The Author(s) 2010.


Fiume M.M.,Cosmetic Ingredient Review
International journal of toxicology | Year: 2013

The Cosmetic Ingredient Review Expert Panel assessed the safety of triethanolamine (TEA) and 31 related TEA-containing ingredients as used in cosmetics. The TEA is reported to function as a surfactant or pH adjuster; the related TEA-containing ingredients included in this safety assessment are reported to function as surfactants and hair- or skin-conditioning agents. The exception is TEA-sorbate, which is reported to function as a preservative. The Panel reviewed the available animal and clinical data. Although data were not available for all the ingredients, the panel relied on the information available for TEA in conjunction with previous safety assessments of components of TEA-containing ingredients. These data could be extrapolated to support the safety of all included ingredients. The panel concluded that TEA and related TEA-containing ingredients named in this report are safe as used when formulated to be nonirritating. These ingredients should not be used in cosmetic products in which N-nitroso compounds can be formed.


Fiume M.M.,Cosmetic Ingredient Review
International journal of toxicology | Year: 2013

Cocamide diethanolamine (DEA) and some of the other diethanolamides are mainly used as surfactant foam boosters or viscosity increasing agents in cosmetics, although a few are reported to be used as hair and skin conditioning agents, surfactant-cleansing or surfactant-emulsifying agents, or as an opacifying agent. The Cosmetic Ingredient Review (CIR) Expert Panel considered new data and information from previous CIR reports to assess the concerns about the potential for amidases in human skin to convert these diethanolamides into DEA and the corresponding fatty acids. The Expert Panel concluded that these diethanolamides are safe as used when formulated to be nonirritating and when the levels of free DEA in the diethanolamides do not exceed those considered safe by the Panel. The Panel also recommended that these ingredients not be used in cosmetic products in which N-nitroso compounds can be formed.


Burnett C.L.,Cosmetic Ingredient Review
International journal of toxicology | Year: 2013

2-Amino-4-hydroxyethylaminoanisole and its salt, 2-amino-4-hydroxyethylaminoanisole sulfate, are used as coupling agents in oxidative hair dyes. The Cosmetic Ingredient Review Expert Panel reviewed relevant animal and human data related to the ingredient. The Expert Panel concluded that 2-amino-4-hydroxyethylaminoanisole and 2-amino-4-hydroxyethylaminoanisole sulfate are safe for use in oxidative hair dye formulations. The Expert Panel cautioned that these ingredients should not be used in cosmetic products in which N-nitroso compounds may be formed.


Becker L.C.,Cosmetic Ingredient Review
International journal of toxicology | Year: 2013

The Cosmetic Ingredient Review (CIR) Expert Panel assessed the safety of silica silylate, silica dimethyl silylate, trimethylsiloxysilicate, and trifluoropropyldimethyl/trimethylsiloxysilicate as used in cosmetics. These silylates and surface-modified siloxysilicates function in cosmetics as antifoaming agents, anticaking agents, bulking agents, binders, skin-conditioning agents--emollient, skin-conditioning agents-occlusive, slip modifiers, suspension agents--nonsurfactant, and viscosity increasing agents--nonaqueous. The Expert Panel reviewed the available animal and clinical data as well as information from a previous CIR safety assessment of amorphous silica. The CIR Expert Panel concluded that silica silylate, silica dimethyl silylate, trimethylsiloxysilicate, and trifluoropropyldimethyl/trimethylsiloxysilicate are safe as used when formulated and delivered in the final product not to be irritating or sensitizing to the respiratory tract.


PubMed | Cosmetic Ingredient Review
Type: Journal Article | Journal: International journal of toxicology | Year: 2013

The Cosmetic Ingredient Review Expert Panel (Panel) reviewed the safety of 4 ammonium hectorite compounds used in cosmetics: disteardimonium hectorite, dihydrogenated tallow benzylmonium hectorite, stearalkonium hectorite, and quaternium-18 hectorite. These ingredients function in cosmetics mainly as nonsurfactant suspending agents. The Panel reviewed available animal and human data and concluded that these ammonium hectorite compounds were safe as cosmetic ingredients in the practices of use and concentration as given in this safety assessment.


PubMed | Cosmetic Ingredient Review
Type: Journal Article | Journal: International journal of toxicology | Year: 2013

The Cosmetic Ingredient Review Expert Panel (Panel) reviewed the safety of -amino acids, which function primarily as hair- and skin-conditioning agents in cosmetic products. The safety of -amino acids as direct food additives has been well established based on extensive research through acute and chronic dietary exposures. The Panel focused its review on dermal irritation and sensitization data relevant to the use of these ingredients in topical cosmetics. The Panel concluded that -amino acids were safe as cosmetic ingredients in the practices of use and concentration of this safety assessment.


PubMed | Cosmetic Ingredient Review
Type: Journal Article | Journal: International journal of toxicology | Year: 2013

Formaldehyde and methylene glycol may be used safely in cosmetics if established limits are not exceeded and are safe for use in nail hardeners in the present practices of use and concentration, which include instructions to avoid skin contact. In hair-smoothing products, however, in the present practices of use and concentration, formaldehyde and methylene glycol are unsafe. Methylene glycol is continuously converted to formaldehyde, and vice versa, even at equilibrium, which can be easily shifted by heating, drying, and other conditions to increase the amount of formaldehyde. This rapid, reversible formaldehyde/methylene glycol equilibrium is distinguished from the slow, irreversible release of formaldehyde resulting from the so-called formaldehyde releaser preservatives, which are not addressed in this safety assessment (formaldehyde releasers may continue to be safely used in cosmetics at the levels established in their individual Cosmetic Ingredient Review safety assessments).

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