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Shanmuganathan R.,CoRx Lifesciences and Pharmaceutical CLAP Private Ltd | Kumaresan R.,Periyar Maniammai University | Giri P.,Kidney Care
Journal of Postgraduate Medicine | Year: 2015

Context: Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD) is associated with a high risk of developing further severe complications such as, cardiovascular disease and eventually End Stage Renal Disease (ESRD) leading to death. Hypertension plays a key role in the progression of renal failure and is also a chief risk factor for the occurrence of End Stage Renal Disease (ESRD). Aim: This study investigates the possible association of insertion (I) and deletion (D) polymorphism of ACE gene in patients of Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD) with and without hypertension (HT). Settings and Design: Total 120 participants with 30 members in each group (Control, HT, CKD and CKD-HT) were chosen followed by informed consent. Materials and Methods: Blood samples were collected and subjected to biochemical analyses and nested PCR amplification was performed to genotype the DNA, for ACE I/D using specific primers. Statistical Analysis: Statistical analyses were performed using SPSS version 13. Allele and genotypic frequency was calculated by direct gene counting method. Comparison of the different genotypes was done by using Chi square test. Odd′s ratios were calculated with a 95% confidence interval limit. Results: The ACE genotype were distributed as II, 27 (90%); DD, 2 (6.67%) and ID, 1 (3.33%) in control, II, 1 (3.33%); DD, 5 (16.67%) and ID, 24 (80%) in HT, II, 4 (13.33%); DD, 24 (80%) and ID, 2 (6.67%) in CKD and II, 0 (0%); DD, 2 (6.67%) and ID, 28 (93.33%) in CKD-HT group. Conclusions: D allele of ACE gene confers a greater role in genetic variations underlying CKD and hypertension. This result suggest that CKD patients should be offered analysis for defects in ACE I/D polymorphisms, especially if they are hypertensive.

Harshiny M.,Institute of Chemical Technology | Harshiny M.,CoRx Lifesciences And Pharmaceutical CLAP Private Ltd | Matheswaran M.,Institute of Chemical Technology | Arthanareeswaran G.,Institute of Chemical Technology | And 2 more authors.
Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety | Year: 2015

Green synthesis of nanoparticles with low range of toxicity and conjugation to antibiotics has become an attractive area of research for several biomedical applications. Nanoconjugates exhibited notable increase in biological activity compared to free antibiotic molecules. With this perception, we report the biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles using aqueous extract of leaves of Mukia maderaspatana and subsequent conjugation of the silver nanoparticles to antibiotic ceftriaxone. The leaves of this plant are known to be a rich source of phenolic compounds with high antioxidant activity that are used as reducing agents. The size, morphology, crystallinity, composition of the synthesized silver nanoparticles and conjugation of ceftriaxone to silver nanoparticles were studied using analytical techniques. The activity of the conjugates against Bacillus subtilis (MTCC 1790), Klebsiella pneumoniae (MTCC 3384), Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC 25923), and Salmonella typhi (MTCC 3224) was compared to ceftriaxone and unconjugated nanoparticles using disc diffusion method. The effect of silver nanoparticles on the reduction of biofilms of Pseudomonas fluorescens (MTCC 6732) was determined by micro plate assay method. The antioxidant activities of extract, silver nitrate, silver nanoparticles, ceftriaxone and conjugates of nanoparticles were evaluated by radical scavenging 1, 1- diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl test. Ultraviolet visible spectroscopy and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy confirmed the formation of metallic silver nanoparticles and conjugation to ceftriaxone. Atomic force microscopy, transmission electron microscopy and particle size analysis showed that the formed particles were of spherical morphology with appreciable nanosize and the conjugation was confirmed by slight increase in surface roughness. The results thus showed that the conjugation of ceftriaxone with silver nanoparticles has better antioxidant and antimicrobial effects than ceftriaxone and unconjugated nanoparticles. It can be suggested that M. maderaspatana mediated nanoparticle-ceftriaxone conjugate can be used effectively in the production of potential antioxidant and antimicrobial agents. The present study offers a significant overview to the development of novel antimicrobial nanoparticles. © 2015 Elsevier Inc.

Akila K.,Periyar Maniammai University | Rajasree S.,CoRx Lifesciences and Pharmaceutical CLAP Private Ltd | Shanthakumar R.,CoRx Lifesciences and Pharmaceutical CLAP Private Ltd
International Journal of Pharma and Bio Sciences | Year: 2014

Carbon is the element that contributes towards the hydrophobic effect and biological function of living systems. It is reported that globular proteins prefer to have 31.45% carbon for stability, which can be used as the standard for carbon measurement and comparison. Carbon distribution analysis has been carried out using the tool CARd, which can clearly identify the hydrophobic and hydrophilic regions along the sequence and can also pinpoint an amino acid which is causing instability. Cancer is one of the most feared diseases of the 20th century and spreading further with continuance and growing incidence in 21st century. The role of carbon along the protein sequence and amino acid composition of hydrophobic regions in selected cancer related proteins (BAK, PTEN, E6, p53, Retinoblastoma) were focused in this study. Carbon content and distribution were computed and the active sites identified were reported here. This study which dealt with the active site prediction through the analysis of carbon distribution in cancer related proteins promises significant applications in biological and pharmaceutical sciences such as drug design and genetic engineering.

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