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Baran D.,Friedrich - Alexander - University, Erlangen - Nuremberg | Li N.,Friedrich - Alexander - University, Erlangen - Nuremberg | Breton A.-C.,Laval University | Breton A.-C.,Corporation Scientifique Claisse | And 5 more authors.
Journal of the American Chemical Society | Year: 2014

The enormous synthetic efforts on novel solar cell materials require a reliable and fast technique for the rapid screening of novel donor/acceptor combinations in order to quickly and reliably estimate their optimized parameters. Here, we report the applicability of such a versatile and fast evaluation technique for bulk heterojunction (BHJ) organic photovoltaics (OPV) by utilizing a steady-state photoluminescence (PL) method confirmed by electroluminescence (EL) measurements. A strong relation has been observed between the residual singlet emission and the charge transfer state emission in the blend. Using this relation, a figure of merit (FOM) is defined from photoluminescence and also electroluminescence measurements for qualitative analysis and shown to precisely anticipate the optimized blend parameters of bulk heterojunction films. Photoluminescence allows contactless evaluation of the photoactive layer and can be used to predict the optimized conditions for the best polymer-fullerene combination. Most interestingly, the contactless, PL-based FOM method has the potential to be integrated as a fast and reliable inline tool for quality control and material optimization. © 2014 American Chemical Society.

Anzelmo J.A.,Corporation Scientifique Claisse | Bouchard M.,Corporation Scinetifique Claisse | Provencher M.-E.,Claisse United States | Provencher M.-E.,International Center for Diffraction Data
Spectroscopy (Santa Monica) | Year: 2013

This column installment is the first in a series describing the educational components and processes necessary in learning the technique of X-ray fluorescence (XRF) spectroscopy. Here, we discuss the main areas of training necessary for a good foundation in the analytical methodology of XRF spectroscopy. The installment begins with the place of XRF in the analytical instrumentation spectrum and defines its capabilities and compares them to other elemental analysis techniques. Then a description of a general spectrometer is provided so that the different types and capabilities of the various XRF spectrometers can be listed and understood. This leads to a discussion of the conceptual physics that occurs during XRF analysis, including the physics of the interactions occurring inside the sample that are not related to the spectrometer.

Bouchard M.,Corporation Scientifique Claisse | Milliard A.,Corporation Scientifique Claisse | Rivard S.,Corporation Scientifique Claisse | Ness S.,Intertek
Powder Diffraction | Year: 2014

A very efficient analytical method using an automated fusion machine as sample preparation tool and a wavelength-dispersive X-ray fluorescence (WDXRF) spectrometer for the determination of all the elements of interest for the iron ore industry has been optimized from the ISO 9516-1 standard method. This updated method allows for the simplification of both laboratory and spectrometry processes and so, in comparison with the original International Organization for Standardization (ISO) method, becomes less restrictive in practice. This method was used to prepare a large variety of iron ores and exploration samples from all over the world. Results of the prevailing XRF application based on pure oxide standards as described in the ISO standard method are compared to the results of a unique XRF calibration application based on certified reference materials (CRMs) for iron ores and iron ores exploration materials. The universal sample preparation fusion method for iron ores and exploration samples developed during the first phase of this project was used to select and evaluate a set of CRMs. Selected throughout the world from well-recognized sources, the chosen set of CRMs allows a wide coverage for all the elements of interest of the iron ore industry, excluding tin oxide. This fusion method allows a matrix match for materials from different origins. A critical evaluation of precision and accuracy has been performed against the ISO standard method. Reference materials not included in the calibration (control samples) was also investigated for accuracy evaluation. Furthermore, comparisons will be made between the data collected from this fusion method implemented in combination with a Bruker S4 Explorer WDXRF Spectrometer, and the analytical requirements of ISO. All deviations from the prevailing standard method parameters (calibration, standards, flux, Fluxer, etc.) will also be pointed out and discussed. © International Centre for Diffraction Data 2014.

Bedard M.,Corporation Scientifique Claisse | Pitre J.,Corporation Scientifique Claisse
Spectroscopy (Santa Monica) | Year: 2014

The traditional method for the dissolution of chromite ore, ferrochrome, and chromium slag samples is time-consuming and requires the use of hydrofluoric (HF) and perchloric (HClO4) acids. A new sodium peroxide fusion method offers a quicker, safer, and more efficient alternative to working with these high-risk acids. Various samples and reference materials were used to validate the new method. This installment of "Atomic Perspectives" describes the fusion method, provides the conditions for inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectrometry, and lists the accuracy and precision measurements for all prepared samples.

Berube L.,Corporation Scientifique Claisse | Rivard S.,Corporation Scientifique Claisse Division Europe | Bouchard M.,Corporation Scientifique Claisse
Yejin Fenxi/Metallurgical Analysis | Year: 2012

Ferroalloys are high added-value materials used as raw materials in the steel industry for adjusting the final composition of steel and providing its physical and chemical properties. A precise management of the quantities of ferroalloys added in the steel making process leads to significant savings. Moreover, impurities in ferroalloys can affect the properties of steel. Proper characterization of ferroalloys is necessary since it has significant impacts on the quality of steel production, along with major financial consequences for steel manufacturing companies.Sample preparation by borate fusion, coupled with XRF analysis, is an effective and renowned technique for accurate and precise determination of major, minor and some trace elements in a wide range of ferroalloys. High performance fusion instruments can be integrated into the rFUSION robotized system, allowing fused disks preparation to run independently and without manual intervention. In regard to production, the rFUSION automated fusion system increases and stabilizes analysis output rates while assuring the quality of results is never compromised over productivity. In addition, the rFUSION ensures of the fusion process and brings consistency and uniformity of the results, owing to its standardization design.

Bouchard M.,Corporation Scientifique Claisse | Anzelmo J.,Corporation Scientifique Claisse | Rivard S.,Corporation Scientifique Claisse | Seyfarth A.,Bruker | And 3 more authors.
Powder Diffraction | Year: 2011

A previous paper portrayed sample preparation by fusion methodology and the XRF analysis conditions for the calibration of cement materials [Bouchard et al. , 2009. "Global cement and raw materials fusion/XRF analytical solution," Adv. X-Ray Anal.53, 263-279]. The results of two well known cement chemical analysis Standard Methods were also presented. These results proved that this robust analytical method is able to qualify by the ASTM C114 [ASTM C114-08 (2008). "Standard test methods for chemical analysis of hydraulic cement," Annual Book of ASTM Standards Vol. 04.01 (ASTM International, West Conshohocken, PA), pp. 150-157)] and ISO/DIS 29581-2 [Draft Standard, 2007-07 (2007). "Methods of testing cement-Chemical analysis of cement-Part 2: Analysis by X-ray fluorescence" ISO/DIS 29581-2, 2007, pp. 1-30]. This robust analytical method was developed using an automated fusion instrument for the sample preparation and a WDXRF spectrometer for the determination of all elements of interest relating to the cement industry. This method was used to prepare finished products, process materials, as well as a very large range of raw materials. The first part of this second paper examines all the XRF analysis conditions for the calibration of the raw materials using the robust fusion sample preparation methodology as well as the numerous reference materials (RMs) used for this analytical application. All interesting results will be presented. The second part of this paper reveals the rapid analytical method results using sample preparation by fusion on nonignited samples. It will also be proven that this faster method, combined with the WDXRF spectrometer, complies with both cement analysis Standard Methods: ASTM C114 and ISO/DIS 29581-2. © 2011 International Centre for Diffraction Data.

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