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A location design of wildfire detection towers for Region Metropolitana is proposed. For that objective, critical zones of occurrence are determined based on the historical records of fires and afterwards, a boundary of quadrants --based on the net used by Corporacion Nacional Forestal (CONAF) for the record of fires-- is designed. Later the potential problems of occurrence and spread of wildfires are spatially and temporarily assessed by means of the determination of “protection priorities” in the study area. Subsequently, in order to minimize the quantity of optional locations for the emplacement of towers, the identification of prominent points of relief (geographical landmarks) present in the area is suggested. This is achieved through a topographic index that evaluates the altitude of every point in relation to his neighboring zones. Later, a combinatorial automated model is developed in GIS; this model evaluates the set of possibilities and allows determining the minimal quantity of towers capable of covering at least 75% of the surface in the first priority of protection to the interior of each quadrant. Results indicate that Region Metropolitana contains 16 critical zones of occurrence. On the other hand, the proposed system needs eight points of observation to cover in average 79.3% of the surface of the first priority contained by the quadrants and 46.8% in areas of equal qualification at regional level. The flexibility of the proposed model, of being repeatable in different zones and scales, stands out; allowing besides the incorporation of diverse restrictions before its evaluation. © 2014, Universidad Austral de Chile. All Rights reserved. Source


Squeo F.A.,University of La Serena | Squeo F.A.,Institute Ecologia y Biodiversidad IEB | Estades C.,University of Chile | Bahamonde N.,Academia Chilena de Ciencias | And 12 more authors.
Revista Chilena de Historia Natural | Year: 2010

Since 1985, the Chilean government with the participation and support of different specialists in plant and animal conservation, started the publication of checklists (i.e. red books) of plant (1985) and animal species (1987) with high to moderate risk of extinction due to human activities (i.e. threatened species). The seven categories of threats used in these publications matched those used by the International Union for the Conservation of Nature (IUCN) in 1982; nonetheless, for the flora there was matching only in five of the categories used. In 1994, the Law 19300 on the General Bases of the Environment established six categories of conservation status. The regulations for the classification of the wild species in Conservation categories, enacted in 2005, defined these six categories, which resulted from a combination of those proposed by the IUCN in 2001 and 1982. The generation of this hybrid system, which is not fully comparable with that of the IUCN (2001) and widely used in the rest of the world, has severely restricted the possibility of classifying species with a threat level lower than "Vulnerable". Further complications were generated due to the definition of conservation categories that appeared in the Laws 19473 (1996) regulating the hunting activity and 20283 (2008) supporting the native forest recovery and forestry development. The Law 20417 (enacted in January 26, 2010) modified the Law 19300 and incorporated the categories recommended by IUCN. Currently, the State requires adapting several legal bodies to advance in the knowledge of the conservation status of the nation's flora and fauna, and consequently, ensure the implementation of effective efforts to protect our biodiversity. Source


Muller-Using B.,University of Concepcion | Rodriguez R.,Corporacion Nacional Forestal CONAF | Gajardo P.,Corporacion Nacional Forestal CONAF
Bosque | Year: 2013

This study developed a stand density management diagrams using an allometric size-density relationship, based only permanent plots from the Biobío region and to provide a regional tool to allow a better quantitative control of the intermediate cut in roble (Nothofagus obliqua). We used 20 fragments of pure roble located at different environments in the region of Biobío. To get mortality initiation line and the maximum stand production initiation line, were used theoretical estimates of relative density of 0.60 and 0.40 respectively in relation to the maximum size-density line. In our study, the slope of size-density relationships and maximum size-density line differs significantly from the value determined by other studies developed for roble in the country. Furthermore, the slope of size-density relationships was more negative in the Biobío region for roble, and is indicative of lower growth rates and lower site productivity. It justifies develop models of stand density management diagrams considering specific ecological zones for the same species; furthermore it is necessary to standardize methodologically these studies. Source


Sepulveda B.,University of Atacama | Santana R.,Corporacion Nacional Forestal CONAF | Soto V. J.,Corporacion Nacional Forestal CONAF
Idesia | Year: 2016

In arid zones the loss of biodiversity, plant cover and biomass are permanent environmental problems. Under arid natural conditions, seeds of wild species usually germinate in irregular periods and in long time, making it difficult to use these species in productive processes. Suitable conditions for optimizing and producing massively wild trees from seeds of species from the Copiapó Valley were evaluated, using treatments of reaming and hormonal induction of germination with GA3. The induction conditions for each tree species and the effective plant production capacity was determined. Plant production increased 83.8% on the production of plants in nurseries before the project, by increasing of the germination. Using the production protocol, 25,000 plants from different species by week were produced, with a annual projection which would be possible to control the artificial production of wild plant species. The massive propagation of plants could be a tool to conservation of natural populations of wild species and give potential to use it in production process. © 2016, Universidad de Tarapaca. All rights reserved. Source

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