Corporacion Colombiana de Investigacion Agropecuaria

Valle de San José, Colombia

Corporacion Colombiana de Investigacion Agropecuaria

Valle de San José, Colombia
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Castro R.E.,Corporacion Colombiana de Investigacion Agropecuaria | Sierra A.,Corporacion Colombiana de Investigacion Agropecuaria | Mojica J.E.,Corporacion Colombiana de Investigacion Agropecuaria | Carulla J.E.,National University of Colombia | Lascano C.E.,Centro Internacional Of Agricultura Tropical
Archivos de Zootecnia | Year: 2017

The use of forage crops as cut and carry or to ensile is an alternative to reduce the negative effects of the dry season in the nutrition of cattle in dual cattle systems in the dry tropics. On the other hand, the use of legumes as green manure is an alternative to the use of chemical nitrogen (N) for fertilizing forage crops. To use legumes as green manures in an efficient way in cattle farms, it is necessary to select fast-growing productive legumes adapted to drought and to define alternative rotation practices with forage crops. Four legumes (Canavalia brasiliensis, Lablab purpureus, Vigna unguiculata, and Clitoria ternatea) two nitrogen levels (0 and 50); and two management practices (crop planted in the first or fourth month after incorporation of the green manure) were imposed and arranged in a split plot design with three replications. The highest yields (p<0.05) were obtained with C. brasiliensis (5201 Kg DM ha-1) and L. purpureus (5538 kg DM ha-1). The longer (4 months) time interval between the incorporation of the green manure and the planting of the forage crop, resulted in lower (p<0.05) levels of soil NO3 (14.5 to 22.1 mg kg-1) as compared to the one-month interval (22.7 to 41.9 mg kg-1) possibly due to the leaching that can result in the contamination of water sources. We conclude that C. purpureus and L. brasiliensis are legume options that can be used as green manure in dual purpose livestock systems in the dry tropics. The management of legume green manures evaluated did not affect the yield or quality of the maize forage crop used in rotation as an indicator, but could have differential environmental effects. © 2017, Universidad de Cordoba,Servicio de Publicaciones. All rights reserved.

Tamayo-Velez A.,Corporacion Colombiana de investigacion Agropecuaria | Osorio N.W.,National University of Colombia
Botany | Year: 2017

An experiment was conducted to evaluate the individual and combined effects of treatment with the phosphate solubilizing fungus Mortierella sp. and the arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus Rhizoglomus fasciculatum on the plant growth and phosphate uptake on plantlets of avocado (Persea americana Mill. cv. ‘Hass’) grown in a nursery. A completely randomized test design was used. Treatments consisted of individual and combined inoculations with R. fasciculatum and Mortierella sp. at two concentrations (106 and 108 CFU・mL−1), and the results were compared with an uninoculated control. The plant height, shoot dry mass, and shoot phosphate uptake were significantly higher in plants inoculated with both of the fungi than with either fungus individually, or in the uninoculated control plants. The colonization of fine roots with both fungi decreased when they were co-inoculated by comparison with when they were individually inoculated, which suggests that these fungi compete for root space. Despite this competition, the dual inoculation showed that the fungi had additive effects on plant performance. Thus, shoot phosphate levels in plantlets inoculated with mycorrhizae was significantly higher when Mortierella sp. was co-inoculated at both concentrations, compared with the single inoculations and the uninoculated control plants (mycorrhiza free). © 2017, Canadian Science Publishing. All rights reserved.

Ordonez-Gomez C.,University Francisco de Paula Santander | Afanador-Tellez G.,National University of Colombia | Castaneda S.,Corporacion Colombiana de Investigacion Agropecuaria | Florez H.,Corporacion Colombiana de Investigacion Agropecuaria | Ariza-Nieto C.,Corporacion Colombiana de Investigacion Agropecuaria
Ciencia Animal Brasileira | Year: 2017

The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of the inclusion level of crude glycerin from palm oil in the diet of growing pigs. Diets were formulated to be isocaloric and isoproteic, with a constant content of linoleic acid within the experimental diets. A total of 36 pigs (average BW 23.05± 2.86 kg) were randomly assigned to one of the three treatments: 1) 0% of crude glycerin; 2) 5% of crude glycerin; 3) 10% of crude glycerin. Pigs were housed in 12 pens; 4 replicates (pens) per treatment and three pigs/replicate. Data were analyzed as a complete block design using the GLIMMIX procedure of SAS, with a random block effect for period. This study established that inclusion of crude glycerin from palm oil in the diet of growing pigs did not affect (P > 0.05) growth performance, carcass characteristics and meat quality. We concluded that inclusion of crude glycerin from palm oil up to 10% of the diet did not adversely affect pig performance and the quality of the meat.

Amaya O.S.,Federal University of Viçosa | Devia E.H.V.,Corporacion Colombiana de Investigacion Agropecuaria | Floriano J.A.,Corporacion Colombiana de Investigacion Agropecuaria
Pesquisa Agropecuaria Brasileira | Year: 2012

The objective of this work was to develop a proposal for Neohydatothrips signifer sampling in the passion fruit crop. Average thrip infestation on the crop was correlated with the meteorological variables of relative humidity, temperature, and precipitation using Pearson correlation coefficient. Likewise, determinations were done for the aggregation rate of the growing population using chi square (X2) for the Poisson distribution, the ratio test V2/μ and the negative binomial distribution. Temperature is the only climatic variable that significantly correlated with the mean density of the thrips. There were higher incidence and population density of the insects at the vegetative terminal buds, in comparison to the flower buds. The spatial distribution pattern for this insect, along all phenological stages of the plant, was aggregated. Using the aggregation index and the average population, a sample of 22 new vegetative terminal buds per hectare was determined as appropriate, regardless of its position within the plant. A thrip sampling method in the passion fruit crop should sample over terminal buds, without account their position on plants.

Prentice E.,CSIRO | Knerr N.,CSIRO | Schmidt-Lebuhn A.N.,CSIRO | Gonzalez-Orozco C.E.,Corporacion Colombiana de Investigacion Agropecuaria | And 2 more authors.
Plant and Soil | Year: 2017

Aims: The Proteaceae are a diverse family of approximately 80 genera and 1700 species with a mostly southern-hemisphere distribution. While distributional patterns of various subsets of the Proteaceae have been studied, no quantitative continental-scale study of species-level spatial biodiversity patterns of the Australian Proteaceae has been conducted. The aim of this study is to identify and examine patterns of distribution, diversity and endemism for the Proteaceae (at family, genera and species levels) of continental Australia and to investigate the environmental drivers for the observed patterns. Methods: Using 151,899 herbarium records for 1179 Australian Proteaceae species, we investigate taxon richness, endemism, and compositional turnover along with climatic and soil correlates. Results: Species richness and endemism was highest in the Southwest phytogeographical region, as well as the Atherton and Southeastern subregions. Genus richness was highest in the Northeastern and Atherton subregions. Highest species turnover occured in the Southwestern region and the Southeastern subregion while lowest species turnover occured in the Northern, Northern Desert and Eremaean regions. Over the entire continent, soil geochemistry and climate explain 37% of the variation in species turnover; however, in areas of high species richness, they account for >75% of the variation in species turnover. Conclusions: These results suggest that the biogeographic patterns of the Proteaceae are impacted by climate and soils, where Proteaceae specialization has filled novel environmental niches associated with low nutrient and low water availability soils, particularly in southwestern Australia. © 2017 Springer International Publishing Switzerland (outside the USA)

Betancourt L.,University of la Salle of Colombia | Rodriguez F.,Corporacion Colombiana de Investigacion Agropecuaria | Phandanouvong V.,Corporacion Colombiana de Investigacion Agropecuaria | Ariza-Nieto C.,Corporacion Colombiana de Investigacion Agropecuaria | And 5 more authors.
Poultry Science | Year: 2014

Essential oils have been proposed as alternatives to antibiotic use in food animal production. This study evaluated 3 chemotypes of the Origanum genus, containing varying amounts of secondary metabolites carvacrol, thymol, and sabinene, in the broiler chicken diet. Aerial parts of Origanum vulgare L. (OL), O. vulgare L. ssp. hirtum (OH), and O. majorana (OM) were collected from a greenhouse located in the high altitude Sabana de Bogotá (Savanna of Bogotá) and O. vulgare L. ssp. hirtum (OG) produced and ground in Greece. Oregano essential oils (OEO) from these plants were obtained by steam distillation and analyzed by gas chromatography coupled to a mass spectrometer. Six treatments were evaluated: 200 mg/kg of OEO from OH, OL, and OM, 50 mg/kg of OEO from OG, 500 mg/kg of chlortetracycline, and without additives. Broiler chicks were maintained at 2,600 m above sea level, placed in brooder cages under a completely randomized design. Template DNA was isolated from duodenal, jejunal, ileal, and cecal contents in each group and bacterial 16S rDNA patterns were analyzed by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis. Dendrograms of denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis band patterns revealed 2 main clusters, OEO-treated chicks and nontreated control chicks, in each intestinal segment. Band patterns from different gut compartments revealed major bacterial population shifts in the foregut (duodenum, jejunum, and ileum) compared with the hindgut (cecum and colon) at all ages evaluated (P < 0.05). The OEO groups showed less shift (62.7% similarity coefficient) between these 2 compartments versus the control groups (53.7% similarity coefficient). A reduction of 59% in mortality from ascites was seen in additive-supplemented groups compared with the control group. This study represents the first work to evaluate the effects of the 3 main chemotypes of Origanum genus in broilers. © 2014 Poultry Science Association Inc.

Kondo T.,Corporacion Colombiana de Investigacion Agropecuaria | Pellizzari G.,University of Padua
Revista Brasileira de Entomologia | Year: 2011

A new species of soft scale insect from Mexico, Toumeyella fontanai Kondo & Pellizzari sp. nov. is described and illustrated. A taxonomic key to the species of scale insects of the genus Toumeyella Cockerell known in Mexico is provided.

Kondo T.,Corporacion Colombiana de Investigacion Agropecuaria
ZooKeys | Year: 2010

A new soft scale insect, Bombacoccus aguacatae Kondo, gen. n. and sp. n. (Hemiptera: Coccidae) collected on the branches and twigs of avocado, Persea americana Mill. (Lauraceae) in Colombia, is described and illustrated based on the adult female. An updated taxonomic key to closely related genera of the Toumeyella-group is provided.

Abadia L. J.C.,University of Valle | Arcila A.M.,Corporacion Colombiana de Investigacion Agropecuaria | Chacon P.,University of Valle
Revista Colombiana de Entomologia | Year: 2013

In order to establish the incidence and distribution of four types of termites in citrus crops of the Caribbean coast of Colombia, were sampled 64 crops distributed in 61 farms in five departments (Atlántico, Bolívar, Cesar, Córdoba, and Magdalena). We used the exhaustive method of search termite nests and galleries in the citrus tree and its surroundings. Distribution maps were made with the occurrence of termites and with the ANOVA to compare the occurrence of termites among citrus species, age categories of the crop and between sampling areas (department and municipality). For the above comparisons statistically significant differences were not found. In total, 1975 trees were reviewed from which 899 had termites, 64% came from the crops of orange, 27.30% from common lemon tree and the remaining 8.70% from tahiti lemon crop and grapefruit. The samples were represented two families: Termitidae (57%) with ten genera (Anoplotermes, Amitermes, Cortaritermes, Microcerotermes, Nasutitermes, Neocapritermes, Orthognathotermes, Ruptitermes, Rhynchotermes and Termes) and Rhinotermitidae (43%) with two genera (Coptotermes and Heterotermes). 17 species were important for their abundance and wide distribution in the study area: Microcerotermes cf. arboreus (59%), Heterotermes convexinotatus (38.50%) and H. tenuis (27.50%). The presence of M. cf. arboreus, H. convexinotatus, H. tenuis, Coptotermes testaceus, C. crassus and Amitermes foreli are the most important findings of this work, because these termites are reported as important species for the Colombian forested, so it is recommended to do further research.

Cardona W.A.,Corporacion Colombiana de Investigacion Agropecuaria | Benavides M.M.B.,Corporacion Colombiana de Investigacion Agropecuaria | Montoya W.C.,University of Caldas
Acta Agronomica | Year: 2016

Aggregate stability is defined as the persistence of its particles, against destructive forces (climatic factors and anthropogenic activity). The aim of this research was to analyze the effect of fertilization on the structural stability of a soil grown with baby banana (Musa acuminata AA). This research was carried out in Manila and Asobaicotol farms (Icononzo, Tolima Department, Colombia); a randomized complete block design with four replications and eight treatments were performed; including compost, mycorrhiza, mineral fertilizers, fertilizer 17-6-18-2 (60 to 100g) and an absolute control (without fertilization). These soils performed medium aggregation (aggregated> 0.55mm) with values about 38.8%, percentage of aggregates extremes, among 40-50% and an aggregate stability about 80%; which allows classifying as very stable soils. The soil samples that received complete fertilization, compost + mycorrhiza and 60g of fertilizer 17-6-18-2; presented structural stability, class 3. MWD (Medium Weighted Diameter) higher values were obtained using only compost and mixed with mycorrhiza; in contrast, soils receiving mineral and chemicals fertilizers, showed poor structuring (MWD <0.5mm). Using the GMD (Geometrical Medium Diameter) more uniform values are observed than with the MWD. Finally, under all treatments, aggregates with diameter >0.75 mm did not exceed 50% and conversely, soil samples showed 20-30% of aggregates with diameter <0.25 mm. The results obtained allow show the positive effect of the application of compost and mycorrhiza on soil aggregation under study.

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