Bogotá, Colombia
Bogotá, Colombia

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Reichert J.M.,Federal University of Santa Maria | Rodrigues M.F.,Federal University of Santa Maria | Pelaez J.J.Z.,CORPOICA | Lanza R.,Federal University of Santa Maria | And 3 more authors.
Agricultural and Forest Meteorology | Year: 2017

Rangelands of the Pampa biome, which cover regions of Argentina, Uruguay and Brazil (176,496 km2 – 2.07% of Brazilian territory and 63% of Rio Grande do Sul State territory, southern region of Brazil) in South America (total area of 750,000 km2), are being substituted by crops and commercial eucalyptus, with potential impacts on ecological and hydrological response of watersheds and river basins. We evaluated the influence of vegetation cover on hydrological processes by describing the water balance and its components (rainfall – P, interception, throughfall, actual evapotranspiration – ETa, groundwater recharge – G, and streamflow – Q) in two paired watersheds. One watershed being cropped to 7-year-old Eucalyptus saligna stands (forest watershed – FW; 0.83 km2) and another consisted of degraded grassland with native and exotic grasslands (grassland watershed – GW; 1.10 km2) used for livestock production in the Rio Grande do Sul State. The study was conducted from October 2012 to September 2014, during two hydrological years: a normal year from October 2012 to September 2013, and a wetter year from October 2013 to September 2014. Pluviometers were installed to study the partition of rain, along with watershed gauges and equipment for monitoring hydrological variables. Meteorological data (maximum and minimum temperature, relative humidity, wind speed, and solar radiation) used to calculate potential evapotranspiration were collected from a tower installed in the FW, whereas hydrological data (P and Q) were collected by sensors installed in each of the watershed spillways. During the normal year, P was 19% above the annual historical average for the region, which is 1314 mm, whereas in wetter year, rainfall was 98% above the same average. Total rainfall interception was similar between years in GW (9 and 10%), but different between years in FW that was higher in wetter (24%) then in normal year (16%). In the normal year, streamflow were 64% lower in the FW compared to the GW, while ETa and G were respectively 37% and 25% greater in the FW compared to the GW. In the wetter year, streamflow was 66% lower in the FW than in the GW, while ETa and G in soil were respectively 27% and 46% greater in the FW compared to the GW. Flow with 5% time streamflow (Q5) was greater in the GW compared to FW in both normal and wetter years. Streamflow in the GW and FW were equal at Q80 and Q82 in the normal and in the wetter years, respectively, and exceedance probability curves crossed over at Q81 and Q82, where the exceedance probability curves become greater in FW than in the GW. Even if the forest watershed had greater ETa compared to the grassland watershed, benefits such as greater interception and lesser surface runoff can be highlighted, for a condition where grassland was degraded and provided low aboveground biomass. Thus, the cultivation of eucalyptus stands may provide better structural conditions and ground cover, greater infiltration and soil water retention, and increased groundwater recharge, with consequent reduction of soil degradation by erosion and increased water availability during dry periods. Long-term use of forest systems, especially when compared to degraded grassland, may provide improvement on soil physical quality. However, these comparative results may not be valid for conditions during harvesting and tillage operations, neither when soil under grasslands has improved physico-hydraulic properties. © 2017 Elsevier B.V.


Blair M.W.,National University of Colombia | Blair M.W.,Tennessee State University | Cordoba J.M.,CORPOICA | Munoz C.,Generation Challenge Program | Yuyo D.K.,National University of Colombia
PLoS ONE | Year: 2014

Highly polymorphic markers such as simple sequence repeats (SSRs) or microsatellites are very useful for genetic mapping. In this study novel SSRs were identified in BAC-end sequences (BES) from non-contigged, non-overlapping bacterial artificial clones (BACs) in common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.). These so called ''singleton''BACs were from the G19833 Andean gene pool physical map and the new BES-SSR markers were used for the saturation of the inter-gene pool, DOR364×G19833 genetic map. A total of 899 SSR loci were found among the singleton BES, but only 346 loci corresponded to the single dior tri-nucleotide motifs that were likely to be polymorphic (ATT or AG motifs, principally) and useful for primer design and individual marker mapping. When these novel SSR markers were evaluated in the DOR364×G19833 population parents, 136 markers revealed polymorphism and 106 were mapped. Genetic mapping resulted in a map length of 2291 cM with an average distance between markers of 5.2 cM. The new genetic map was compared to the most recent cytogenetic analysis of common bean chromosomes. We found that the new singleton BES-SSR were helpful in filling peri-centromeric spaces on the cytogenetic map. Short genetic distances between some new singleton-derived BES-SSR markers was common showing suppressed recombination in these regions compared to other parts of the genome. The correlation of singleton-derived SSR marker distribution with other cytogenetic features of the bean genome is discussed. © 2014 Blair et al.


PubMed | Tennessee State University, National University of Colombia, CORPOICA and Generation Challenge Program
Type: Journal Article | Journal: PloS one | Year: 2014

Highly polymorphic markers such as simple sequence repeats (SSRs) or microsatellites are very useful for genetic mapping. In this study novel SSRs were identified in BAC-end sequences (BES) from non-contigged, non-overlapping bacterial artificial clones (BACs) in common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.). These so called singleton BACs were from the G19833 Andean gene pool physical map and the new BES-SSR markers were used for the saturation of the inter-gene pool, DOR364G19833 genetic map. A total of 899 SSR loci were found among the singleton BES, but only 346 loci corresponded to the single di- or tri-nucleotide motifs that were likely to be polymorphic (ATT or AG motifs, principally) and useful for primer design and individual marker mapping. When these novel SSR markers were evaluated in the DOR364G19833 population parents, 136 markers revealed polymorphism and 106 were mapped. Genetic mapping resulted in a map length of 2291 cM with an average distance between markers of 5.2 cM. The new genetic map was compared to the most recent cytogenetic analysis of common bean chromosomes. We found that the new singleton BES-SSR were helpful in filling peri-centromeric spaces on the cytogenetic map. Short genetic distances between some new singleton-derived BES-SSR markers was common showing suppressed recombination in these regions compared to other parts of the genome. The correlation of singleton-derived SSR marker distribution with other cytogenetic features of the bean genome is discussed.


Camargo A.,Aberystwyth University | Molina J.P.,Corpoica | Cadena-Torres J.,Corpoica | Jimenez N.,Corpoica | Kim J.T.,University of East Anglia
Computers and Electronics in Agriculture | Year: 2012

Crop disorders are a serious threat to food security of inhabitants of remote areas in developing countries. While farmers in developed countries have frequently access to various expert resources that help them to identify the onset of a disease, farmers in developing countries usually do not have such support. However, their access to the Internet and thus to the web has rapidly improved during the last few years. This provides a new opportunity to communicate crop pathology information to remote places.We have developed the " Information system for the assessment of plant disorders" (Isacrodi) to support farmers in protecting their crop. Farmers are guided to use a controlled but extensible set of attributes to describe the state of their crop. On this basis, Isacrodi provides suggestions which disorders may affect the crop, and which measures would be effective against these disorders. Experts provide Isacrodi with descriptions of actual incidents where they have identified the disorder. Isacrodi uses a computational classifier to provide suggestions to users autonomously. The classifier is constructed based on expert's inputs. Suggestions of disorders and countermeasures are presented as ranked lists, leaving the final identification of the disorder and decisions of countermeasures to the user, as they may have additional information beyond the attributes used by Isacrodi.The performance of the classifier was evaluated by generating data that reflects the envisaged usage of the Isacrodi system. Data on crop disorders provided by experts was used to train the classifier and data that simulated the growers wishing to find out which disorder affects their crop was used to test the classifier. The results show that with limited expert input and errors in data provided by users, the classifier is capable of identifying disorders with reasonable accuracy, particularly when the user considers the three top scoring disorders rather than just the top one. Human experts will attain a much better accuracy than the Isacrodi classifier, particularly when provided with samples from the affected crop. However, where such expertise is not available, Isacrodi can provide valuable support to farmers. © 2012.


Carrejo N.,University of Valle | Diaz A.E.,CORPOICA | Woodley N.E.,U.S. Department of Agriculture
Zootaxa | Year: 2013

A new species of Lixophaga Townsend (Diptera: Tachinidae) from Colombia, Lixophaga puscolulo Carrejo & Woodley, sp. nov., is described and illustrated. It is a parasitoid of the tomato fruit borer, Neoleucinodes elegantalis (Guenée) (Lep-idoptera: Crambidae), an insect pest of Solanum quitoense Lam., in Colombia. Aspects of its biology are briefly discussed. Copyright © 2013 Magnolia Press.


Prain G.,International Potato Center | Gonzales N.,International Potato Center | Arce B.,CORPOICA | Tenorio J.,Agrarian National University
Acta Horticulturae | Year: 2010

Strategies and methods have been developed in Lima, Peru to enable urban agricultural producers to take fuller advantage of the nearby location of a wide range of high quality fresh and processed food markets. Horticultural producers in the poor eastern fringe of Lima are currently constrained by a lack of technical and entrepreneurial skills and the capacity for jointly identifying and meeting demand. Through building a collaborative research and development platform among local producers, the watershed irrigation committee and the District Municipality staff, Urban Harvest has implemented three main research and development interventions to make local horticulture more sustainable and profitable, (1) implementation of "Farmer Field Schools" to stimulate innovation and learning in ecological production in an urban setting, (2) design and implementation of a "School for Urban Farmers" to strengthen and empower the producer organizations and establish new marketing opportunities, and (3) the integration of agriculture within local government administration to enhance municipal support for safe and healthy horticultural production and marketing.


Oscar Betancur H.,Animal Health | Antonio Betancourt E.,Corpoica | Julian Estrada A.,University of Caldas | Francisco Henao U.,University of Caldas
Revista MVZ Cordoba | Year: 2016

Objective. To evaluate the persistence of virus, bacteria, mold, yeast and parasites in liquid pig manure, processed in biodigesters and manure tanks in the central-western part of Colombia. Materials and methods. A directed observational study analyzed descriptively was carried out in three pig farms located where the manure tanks were assembled and its biodigesters were used. A sampling of liquid pig manure was taken to assess the presence of 26 pathogens at the beginning of the study and another one at the end of the process in manure tanks and biodigesters. For the manure tank, a 250 liters tank was filled with fresh pig manure and was analyzed after three days of storage. The biodigesters were of continuous flow and its effluents were analyzed, according to the specific hydraulic retention times. The diagnostic techniques were those recommended specifically for each microorganism and were carried out in certified labs by the Colombian Animal Health authority. Results. Of the 26 pathogens that were investigated, 15 appeared in the fresh pig manure used in pig manure tanks and 12 in the one used in biodigestors. In manure tanks, Porcine Circovirus type 2 (PCV2), mold, yeast, Salmonella spp., Balantidium coli and Strongylids did not persist. In biodigesters, PCV2, yeast, Strongylids, B. coli and Strongyloides spp., did not persist. Conclusions. In both manure tanks and biodigesters, a variation could be seen in pathogen persistency, indicating that they act as transformation systems of pig manure for the removal of the latter, as long as the storage times are increased if the efficiency wants to be improved.


Betancourt L.L.,National University of Colombia | Betancourt L.L.,University of la Salle of Colombia | Ariza C.J.,CORPOICA | Afanador G.,National University of Colombia
Revista Colombiana de Ciencias Pecuarias | Year: 2012

Objective: evaluate the effects of different chemiotypes of oregano essential oil (OEO) on protein, fat, and energy ileal digestibility of broiler chickens at 21 days of age. Methods: six treatments were evaluated: 200 ppm of OEO from three varieties produced and ground in Sabana de Bogotá-Colombia: O. vulgare L ssp hirtum (OH); O. vulgare L. (OL) y O. majorana (OM); 500 ppm Chlortetracycline (AB) and a control without additives (C). Between 14 and 21 days of age the chickens were fed with starter diets supplemented with 0.5 g/kg chromium oxide (Cr2O3) as a inert marker. The ileal digesta was collected, and protein, fat, energy, and chromium were analyzed in both feed and ileal content, and ID was calculated. Results: AB group showed a higher protein ID compared to control group, 83.7 and 75.3%, respectively (p<0.05). Both OM and AB experimental groups presented higher values of ID for energy and fat compared to control group, 92.3, 91.7 and 84.2%, respectively (p<0.05). These groups also presented a higher body weight at day 21 (p<0.05). However, the difference disappeared at 42 d of age. A negative correlation was estimated between body weight and carvacrol intake (r: -0.55), but it was positive with thymol intake (r:0.46, p<0.05). Conclusions: the results showed different responses of chickens depending on the composition of OEO.


Severino L.S.,Embrapa Algodao | Severino L.S.,Texas Tech University | Cordoba G O.J.,CORPOICA | Zanotto M.D.,São Paulo State University | Auld D.L.,Embrapa Algodao
Seed Science and Technology | Year: 2012

The caruncle is a structure present in the micropylar region of Euphorbiaceae seeds. This structure has the ecological function of promoting seed dispersal by ants (myrmecochory), but it is debated whether it also has an agronomical importance influencing seed germination. The influence of the caruncle on castor (Ricinus communis) seed germination was evaluated under low soil water content and high soil salinity. Seeds were germinated at soil water storage capacities varying from 22 to 50% and salinities (NaCl) varying from 0 to 10 dS m-1. The germination (%) increased following the increments in soil moisture, but the caruncle had no influence on this process at any moisture level. In one genotype, more root dry mass was produced when caruncle was excised. Increasing salinity reduced the percentage and speed of germination of castor seeds, but no influence of caruncle was detected. No evidence of caruncle influencing castor seed germination was found under low soil water content and high salinity.


PubMed | Smithsonian Institution, CORPOICA and University of Valle
Type: | Journal: Zootaxa | Year: 2014

A new species of Lixophaga Townsend (Diptera: Tachinidae) from Colombia, Lixophaga puscolulo Carrejo & Woodley, sp. nov., is described and illustrated. It is a parasitoid of the tomato fruit borer, Neoleucinodes elegantalis (Guene) (Lepidoptera: Crambidae), an insect pest of Solanum quitoense Lam., in Colombia. Aspects of its biology are briefly discussed.

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