Corpo Forestale dello Stato

Pratovecchio, Italy

Corpo Forestale dello Stato

Pratovecchio, Italy
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Dirnbock T.,Environment Agency Austria | Grandin U.,Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences | Bernhardt-Romermann M.,Friedrich - Schiller University of Jena | Beudert B.,National Park Bayrischer Wald | And 13 more authors.
Global Change Biology | Year: 2014

Abstract: Chronic nitrogen (N) deposition is a threat to biodiversity that results from the eutrophication of ecosystems. We studied long-term monitoring data from 28 forest sites with a total of 1,335 permanent forest floor vegetation plots from northern Fennoscandia to southern Italy to analyse temporal trends in vascular plant species cover and diversity. We found that the cover of plant species which prefer nutrient-poor soils (oligotrophic species) decreased the more the measured N deposition exceeded the empirical critical load (CL) for eutrophication effects (P = 0.002). Although species preferring nutrient-rich sites (eutrophic species) did not experience a significantly increase in cover (P = 0.440), in comparison to oligotrophic species they had a marginally higher proportion among new occurring species (P = 0.091). The observed gradual replacement of oligotrophic species by eutrophic species as a response to N deposition seems to be a general pattern, as it was consistent on the European scale. Contrary to species cover changes, neither the decrease in species richness nor of homogeneity correlated with nitrogen CL exceedance (ExCLempN). We assume that the lack of diversity changes resulted from the restricted time period of our observations. Although existing habitat-specific empirical CL still hold some uncertainty, we exemplify that they are useful indicators for the sensitivity of forest floor vegetation to N deposition. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.


Landi M.,Corpo Forestale dello Stato | Landi M.,University of Siena | Ricceri C.,University of Siena | Angiolini C.,University of Siena
Journal of Coastal Research | Year: 2012

Disturbed and natural sites are compared in a belt of rehabilitated coastal dune on the Tyrrhenian coast of Italy. The goal was to evaluate rehabilitation success by comparing structure and plant composition in three different vegetation types. Vegetational attributes were used to indicate the trajectory of the vegetation dynamic, by recording increases or decreases in these parameters. The variations in attributes and similarities in composition were investigated using multivariate methods. In general, significant changes between the disturbed and natural sites were indicated by a decrease in annual graminoids, trees, and wind-dispersal species and an increase in rare species. In the rehabilitated site, there was a high rate of recruitment of wind-dispersal species, and rehabilitation seems to have been successful from the point of view of the decrease in annual graminoids and increase in rare species. However, each vegetation type of dune environment was associated with a different number of attributes and different rehabilitation success. Specifically: (i) open sands with annual vegetation growing along drift lines were the most similar among the three sites, from the point of view of both structure and species composition, and are therefore the easiest to rehabilitate; (ii) dunes partially or densely vegetated by herbaceous species showed an increase in rare species in the natural site and were characterized by successful rehabilitation; (iii) dunes densely vegetated by shrubs differed significantly between sites and are consequently the most difficult to rehabilitate. Our comparisons suggest that initial planning efforts should focus on this last type of vegetation cover. © the Coastal Education & Research Foundation 2012.


Marini F.,University of Rome La Sapienza | Mutinelli F.,Viale dellUniversita 10 | Montarsi F.,Viale dellUniversita 10 | Cline A.R.,Plant Pest Diagnostics Center | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Pest Science | Year: 2013

Following a report submitted by a beekeeper to Istituto Zooprofilattico Sperimentale delle Venezie, in Padua province (Borgoricco, Veneto, NE Italy), the authors discovered in April 2011 several specimens of the dusky sap beetle Carpophilus lugubris Murray 1864 (Coleoptera, Nitidulidae) on the bottom board of some beehives. At a later time (May 2012), an isolated specimen was also collected within a Natural Reserve in Belluno province (Feltre, Veneto, NE Italy). These specimens represent the first known records of this species in Italy or Europe as a whole. This is also the first record of the species associated with beehives. This discovery led us to review the available bionomical and faunistic data for this widespread Nearctic and Neotropical species. C. lugubris is a recognized pest of corn, therefore is very important monitoring its possible dispersal into cornfields, beehives, and other agricultural regions of NE Italy and southern Europe over the next few years. © 2013 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.


Montecchio L.,University of Padua | Scattolin L.,University of Padua | De Battisti R.,Corpo Forestale dello Stato
Forest Pathology | Year: 2011

After awaking from winter hibernation, the Edible dormouse begins to feed by stripping the bark and the outer part of the xylem from the branches of both broadleaves and conifers. Natural or artificial wounds are essential for the penetration and colonisation of the tissues by the fungal pathogen Neonectria ditissima. This pathogen creates open cankers on beech branches and other broadleaves, which are frequently later infected by wood-decaying fungi. Because of the high frequencies of both dormouse injuries and branch cankers in a large monospecific beech forest in northern Italy, field and laboratory investigations were conducted to verify whether rodent-inflicted injuries on beech were a preferred infection point for the pathogen. These studies also examined the susceptibility to infection of the dormouse-inflicted wounds over time, and the relationships between dormouse damage, Neonectria infection, and wood decay. The results showed a significant direct correlation between the percentage of infections and their proximity to the wounds, indicating that the parasite localises to sites where there are receptive dormouse injuries. In addition, the susceptibility of the wound was found to diminish with increasing age, disappearing in 120-150days. The association between dormouse injuries, Neonectria cankers and wood decay was also found to cause approximately half of the frequent beech branch breakages during intense weather events. © 2010 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.


Paris P.,CNR Institute of Agro-environmental and Forest Biology | Mareschi L.,Corpo Forestale dello Stato | Sabatti M.,University of Tuscia | Tosi L.,CNR Institute of Agro-environmental and Forest Biology | And 2 more authors.
IForest | Year: 2015

The sustainability of bioenergy coppice plantations is strongly affected by the Nitrogen (N) balance, whose removal is very high due to the frequent harvest of large quantities of biomass composed of small-sized shoots. Poplar bioenergy coppice plantations could have a Nitrogen removal comparable to herbaceous crops. In this study, five hybrid poplar genotypes (“AF2”, “AF6”, “Monviso”, “83.148.041”, “I214”) were compared for tree morphological traits related to yield, N removal in the harvested biomass and Nitrogen wood concentration (N %) after two biennial coppice rotations in two experimental plantations located in northern Italy. N removal was primarily influenced by biomass production, and linear positive relationships between biomass yield and N removal were established. N removal also varied greatly among genotypes due to clonal differences in yield and in N%, in relation to significant differences among clones for their branching and sprouting habits. In the first rotation, branchiness was positively correlated to N% with a significant coefficient of determination (R2=0.813), while at the end of the second rotation it was also significantly correlated to the shoots per stool ratio (R2=0.804). “Monviso” and “83.148.041” were the clones showing the highest yield, but also a high N% associated to an high level of branchiness and shoots per stool ratio. Our results highlight that poplar genotype selection for sustainable N management should be aimed at genotypes with low wood N concentration, coupling high yield with low branching and sprouting habits as in the case of the clone “AF2”. © SISEF.


Corona P.,University of Tuscia | Agrimi M.,University of Tuscia | Baffetta F.,University of Siena | Barbati A.,University of Tuscia | And 5 more authors.
Environmental Monitoring and Assessment | Year: 2012

Urban areas are continuously expanding today, extending their influence on an increasingly large proportion of woods and trees located in or nearby urban and urbanizing areas, the so-called urban forests. Although these forests have the potential for significantly improving the quality the urban environment and the well-being of the urban population, data to quantify the extent and characteristics of urban forests are still lacking or fragmentary on a large scale. In this regard, an expansion of the domain of multipurpose forest inventories like National Forest Inventories (NFIs) towards urban forests would be required. To this end, it would be convenient to exploit the same sampling scheme applied in NFIs to assess the basic features of urban forests. This paper considers approximately unbiased estimators of abundance and coverage of urban forests, together with estimators of the corresponding variances, which can be achieved from the first phase of most large-scale forest inventories. A simulation study is carried out in order to check the performance of the considered estimators under various situations involving the spatial distribution of the urban forests over the study area. An application is worked out on the data from the Italian NFI. © 2011 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.


Leonardi M.,University of Pisa | Ambryszewska K.E.,University of Pisa | Melai B.,University of Pisa | Flamini G.,University of Pisa | And 3 more authors.
Chemistry and Biodiversity | Year: 2013

The composition of 21 essential-oil samples isolated from Helichrysum italicum collected in seven locations of Elba Island (Tuscany, Italy), characterized by different soil types, during three different periods (January, May, and October 2010) was determined by GC-FID and GC/EI-MS analyses. In total, 115 components were identified, representing 96.8-99.8% of the oil composition. The oils were characterized by a high content of oxygenated monoterpenes (38.6-62.7%), while monoterpene and sesquiterpene hydrocarbons accounted for 2.3-41.9 and 5.1-20.1% of the identified constituents, respectively. The main oxygenated derivatives were nerol (2.8-12.8%) and its ester derivative neryl acetate (5.6-45.9%). To compare the chemical variability of the species within Elba Island and between the island and other localities within the Mediterranean area, studied previously, multivariate statistical analysis was performed. The results obtained showed a difference in the composition of the essential oils of H. italicum from Elba Island, mainly due to the environment where the plant grows, and, in particular, to the soil type. These hypotheses were further confirmed by the comparison of these oils with essential oils obtained from H. italicum collected on other islands of the Tuscan archipelago. Copyright © 2013 Verlag Helvetica Chimica Acta AG, Zürich.


PubMed | Forest and Food science, Council for Agricultural Research and Economics Agrobiology and Pedology Research Center, Nature and Environment Management Operators s.r.l., Corpo Forestale dello Stato and 2 more.
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Journal of nematology | Year: 2016

Montecristo Island is an integral natural reserve of the Tuscan Archipelago National Park (Central Italy), characterized by a peculiar assemblage of flora and fauna, with several endemic taxa, and also with a high number of alien species. During a soil survey, we found an alien Oscheius tipulae Lam & Webster, 1971 isolate, phylogenetically close to others from South America. In this article, we examined the possible pathways of introduction of this nematode. Because of the high number of alien plants in this protected area and the low desiccation survival ability of O. tipulae, we hypothesized that the presence of this alien nematode isolate may be related to the soil of introduced plants, although historical association with plant-associated invertebrates is also possible. Further studies with more populations and marker molecules are necessary to investigate the distribution of O. tipulae and the possible impact on this natural reserve.


PubMed | Corpo Forestale dello Stato and Instituto Zooprofilattico Sperimentale dellAbruzzo e del Molise IZSAM
Type: | Journal: Infection, genetics and evolution : journal of molecular epidemiology and evolutionary genetics in infectious diseases | Year: 2016

Canine distemper virus (CDV) represents an important conservation threat to many wild carnivores. A large distemper epidemic sustained by an Arctic-lineage strain occurred in Italy in 2013, mainly in the Abruzzi region, causing overt disease in domestic and shepherd dogs, Apennine wolves (Canis lupus) and other wild carnivores. Two badgers were collected by the end of September 2015 in a rural area of the Abruzzi region and were demonstrated to be CDV-positive by real time RT-PCR and IHC in several tissues. The genome of CDV isolates from badgers showed Y549H substitution in the mature H protein. By employing all publicly available Arctic-lineage H protein encoding gene sequences, six amino acid changes in recent Italian strains with respect to Italian strains of dogs from 2000 to 2008, were observed. A CDV strain belonging to the European-wildlife lineage was also identified in a fox found dead in the same region in 2016, proving co-circulation of an additional CDV lineage. We further discussed the scenario of CDV spillover and persistence in wildlife.


PubMed | Corpo Forestale dello Stato and Instituto Zooprofilattico Sperimentale dellAbruzzo e del Molise IZSAM
Type: | Journal: Infection, genetics and evolution : journal of molecular epidemiology and evolutionary genetics in infectious diseases | Year: 2016

Canine distemper virus (CDV) represents an important conservation threat to many wild carnivores. A large distemper epidemic sustained by an Arctic-lineage strain occurred in Italy in 2013, mainly in the Abruzzi region, causing overt disease in domestic and shepherd dogs, Apennine wolves (Canis lupus) and other wild carnivores. Two badgers were collected by the end of September 2015 in a rural area of the Abruzzi region and were demonstrated to be CDV-positive by real time RT-PCR and IHC in several tissues. The genome of CDV isolates from badgers showed Y549H substitution in the mature H protein. By employing all publicly available Arctic-lineage H protein encoding gene sequences, six amino acid changes in recent Italian strains with respect to Italian strains of dogs from 2000 to 2008, were observed. A CDV strain belonging to the European-wildlife lineage was also identified in a fox found dead in the same region in 2016, proving co-circulation of an additional CDV lineage.

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