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Ithaca, NY, United States

Cornell University is an American private Ivy League and federal land-grant research university located in Ithaca, New York. Founded in 1865 by Ezra Cornell and Andrew Dickson White, the university was intended to teach and make contributions in all fields of knowledge — from the classics to the science, and from the theoretical to the applied. These ideals, unconventional for the time, are captured in Cornell's motto, a popular 1865 Ezra Cornell quotation: "I would found an institution where any person can find instruction in any study."The university is broadly organized into seven undergraduate colleges and seven graduate divisions at its main Ithaca campus, with each college and division defining its own admission standards and academic programs in near autonomy. The university also administers two satellite medical campuses, one in New York City and one in Education City, Qatar. Cornell is one of three private land grant universities. Of its seven undergraduate colleges, three are state-supported statutory or contract colleges, including its agricultural and veterinary colleges. As a land grant college, it operates a cooperative extension outreach program in every county of New York and receives annual funding from the State of New York for certain educational missions. The Cornell University Ithaca Campus comprises 745 acres, but in actuality, is much larger due to the Cornell Plantations as well as the numerous university owned lands in New York.Since its founding, Cornell has been a co-educational, non-sectarian institution where admission is offered irrespective of religion or race. Cornell counts more than 245,000 living alumni, 34 Marshall Scholars, 29 Rhodes Scholars and 44 Nobel laureates as affiliated with the university. The student body consists of nearly 14,000 undergraduate and 7,000 graduate students from all 50 American states and 122 countries. Wikipedia.


Primary cilia are displayed during the G(0)/G(1) phase of many cell types. Cilia are resorbed as cells prepare to re-enter the cell cycle, but the causal and molecular link between these two cellular events remains unclear. We show that Tctex-1 phosphorylated at Thr 94 is recruited to ciliary transition zones before S-phase entry and has a pivotal role in both ciliary disassembly and cell cycle progression. However, the role of Tctex-1 in S-phase entry is dispensable in non-ciliated cells. Exogenously adding a phospho-mimic Tctex-1(T94E) mutant accelerates cilium disassembly and S-phase entry. These results support a model in which the cilia act as a brake to prevent cell cycle progression. Mechanistic studies show the involvement of actin dynamics in Tctex-1-regulated cilium resorption. Tctex-1 phosphorylated at Thr 94 is also selectively enriched at the ciliary transition zones of cortical neural progenitors, and has a key role in controlling G(1) length, cell cycle entry and fate determination of these cells during corticogenesis. © 2011 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved Source


Casey B.J.,Cornell University
Annual Review of Psychology | Year: 2015

Adolescence is the transition from childhood to adulthood that begins around the onset of puberty and ends with relative independence from the parent. This developmental period is one when an individual is probably stronger, of higher reasoning capacity, and more resistant to disease than ever before, yet when mortality rates increase by 200. These untimely deaths are not due to disease but to preventable deaths associated with adolescents putting themselves in harm's way (e.g., accidental fatalities). We present evidence that these alarming health statistics are in part due to diminished self-control-the ability to inhibit inappropriate desires, emotions, and actions in favor of appropriate ones. Findings of adolescent-specific changes in self-control and underlying brain circuitry are considered in terms of how evolutionarily based biological constraints and experiences shape the brain to adapt to the unique intellectual, physical, sexual, and social challenges of adolescence. © 2015 by Annual Reviews. All rights reserved. Source


Barrett C.B.,Cornell University
Science | Year: 2010

Food security is a growing concern worldwide. More than 1 billion people are estimated to lack sufficient dietary energy availability, and at least twice that number suffer micronutrient deficiencies. Because indicators inform action, much current research focuses on improving food insecurity measurement. Yet estimated prevalence rates and patterns remain tenuous because measuring food security, an elusive concept, remains difficult. © 2010 American Association for the Advancement for Science. All Rights Reserved. Source


Artis D.,Cornell University | Spits H.,University of Amsterdam
Nature | Year: 2015

The innate immune system is composed of a diverse array of evolutionarily ancient haematopoietic cell types, including dendritic cells, monocytes, macrophages and granulocytes. These cell populations collaborate with each other, with the adaptive immune system and with non-haematopoietic cells to promote immunity, inflammation and tissue repair. Innate lymphoid cells are the most recently identified constituents of the innate immune system and have been the focus of intense investigation over the past five years. We summarize the studies that formally identified innate lymphoid cells and highlight their emerging roles in controlling tissue homeostasis in the context of infection, chronic inflammation, metabolic disease and cancer. © 2015 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved. Source


Sung C.H.,Cornell University
Nature cell biology | Year: 2013

Cilia are present across most eukaryotic phyla and have diverse sensory and motility roles in animal physiology, cell signalling and development. Their biogenesis and maintenance depend on vesicular and intraciliary (intraflagellar) trafficking pathways that share conserved structural and functional modules. The functional units of the interconnected pathways, which include proteins involved in membrane coating as well as small GTPases and their accessory factors, were first experimentally associated with canonical vesicular trafficking. These components are, however, ancient, having been co-opted by the ancestral eukaryote to establish the ciliary organelle, and their study can inform us about ciliary biology in higher organisms. Source

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