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Tettelbach S.T.,Long Island University | Tetrault K.,Cornell Cooperative Extension of Suffolk County
Aquaculture Research | Year: 2014

Netminder®, a water-based silicone barrier release coating, was highly effective in reducing biofouling of lantern nets during grow-out/overwintering of bay scallops, Argopecten irradians irradians, in a large-scale restoration programme in New York, USA. Compared with untreated nets, scallops held in Netminder®-coated nets experienced reduced survival after 8 months, probably due to higher loads of epibionts on their shells. However, this was countered by higher reproductive and overall condition of scallops in treated vs. untreated nets; there were no consistent differences in shell growth in different net treatments. Although further testing is recommended under a wider range of conditions, we conclude that for the purposes of our scallop restoration work, coating nets with Netminder® would eliminate the need for a gear change in spring, thus reducing labour costs; the coating process should be refined so that Velcro closures of nets do not become sealed shut. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons Ltd. Source


van Katwijk M.M.,Radboud University Nijmegen | Thorhaug A.,Yale University | Marba N.,CSIC - Mediterranean Institute for Advanced Studies | Orth R.J.,Virginia Institute of Marine Science | And 24 more authors.
Journal of Applied Ecology | Year: 2016

In coastal and estuarine systems, foundation species like seagrasses, mangroves, saltmarshes or corals provide important ecosystem services. Seagrasses are globally declining and their reintroduction has been shown to restore ecosystem functions. However, seagrass restoration is often challenging, given the dynamic and stressful environment that seagrasses often grow in. From our world-wide meta-analysis of seagrass restoration trials (1786 trials), we describe general features and best practice for seagrass restoration. We confirm that removal of threats is important prior to replanting. Reduced water quality (mainly eutrophication), and construction activities led to poorer restoration success than, for instance, dredging, local direct impact and natural causes. Proximity to and recovery of donor beds were positively correlated with trial performance. Planting techniques can influence restoration success. The meta-analysis shows that both trial survival and seagrass population growth rate in trials that survived are positively affected by the number of plants or seeds initially transplanted. This relationship between restoration scale and restoration success was not related to trial characteristics of the initial restoration. The majority of the seagrass restoration trials have been very small, which may explain the low overall trial survival rate (i.e. estimated 37%). Successful regrowth of the foundation seagrass species appears to require crossing a minimum threshold of reintroduced individuals. Our study provides the first global field evidence for the requirement of a critical mass for recovery, which may also hold for other foundation species showing strong positive feedback to a dynamic environment. Synthesis and applications. For effective restoration of seagrass foundation species in its typically dynamic, stressful environment, introduction of large numbers is seen to be beneficial and probably serves two purposes. First, a large-scale planting increases trial survival - large numbers ensure the spread of risks, which is needed to overcome high natural variability. Secondly, a large-scale trial increases population growth rate by enhancing self-sustaining feedback, which is generally found in foundation species in stressful environments such as seagrass beds. Thus, by careful site selection and applying appropriate techniques, spreading of risks and enhancing self-sustaining feedback in concert increase success of seagrass restoration. For effective restoration of seagrass foundation species in its typically dynamic, stressful environment, introduction of large numbers is seen to be beneficial and probably serves two purposes. First, a large-scale planting increases trial survival - large numbers ensure the spread of risks, which is needed to overcome high natural variability. Secondly, a large-scale trial increases population growth rate by enhancing self-sustaining feedback, which is generally found in foundation species in stressful environments such as seagrass beds. Thus, by careful site selection and applying appropriate techniques, spreading of risks and enhancing self-sustaining feedback in concert increase success of seagrass restoration. Journal of Applied Ecology © 2016 British Ecological Society. Source


Haynes K.G.,U.S. Department of Agriculture | Yencho G.C.,North Carolina State University | Clough M.E.,North Carolina State University | Henninger M.R.,Rutgers University | And 9 more authors.
American Journal of Potato Research | Year: 2015

Peter Wilcox is a new, medium-maturing, purple-skinned, yellow-fleshed potato cultivar for the fresh market. Peter Wilcox also produces light-colored chips, although it is being released primarily as a fresh market potato because of its skin and flesh colors. Tubers are attractive, smooth, with dark purple-skin, oblong shape and moderate size. Yellow-flesh intensity is equal to or slightly darker than Yukon Gold. Marketable yields of Peter Wilcox have averaged 78–97 % of various standard cultivars in multiple years of testing. Specific gravity of Peter Wilcox was lower than Yukon Gold, but higher than standard red-skin cultivars it was compared to at numerous locations. Hollow heart and internal heat necrosis in Peter Wilcox tubers have generally been less than in standard cultivars; however, slight purple-streaks in the flesh have occasionally been reported in Maine. Peter Wilcox is moderately resistant to powdery scab. It is susceptible to late blight, early blight, potato virus Y, Verticillium wilt, and common scab. Peter Wilcox is a publicly released cultivar. © 2015, The Potato Association of America. Source


Tettelbach S.T.,Long Island University | Barnes D.,NY Environmental Conservation | Aldred J.,Town of East Hampton Shellfish Hatchery | Rivara G.,Cornell Cooperative Extension of Suffolk County | And 9 more authors.
Aquaculture International | Year: 2011

Two different methods of establishing high-density spawner sanctuaries for bay scallop (Argopecten irradians irradians) restoration were evaluated over 2 years at a site in Northwest Harbor, East Hampton, New York, USA. Hatchery-reared scallops, which had been overwintered at nearby sites, were free-planted directly to the bottom in late March/early April at an initial target density of 94-128 scallops/m2. In addition, scallops were stocked in off-bottom culture units consisting of three vertically stacked 15-mm mesh ADPI® bags at densities of 50, 100, or 200 scallops/bag (=117, 234, or 468 scallops/m2), respectively. Survival of scallops differed significantly by year, planting method, and scallop source. Survival of free-planted scallops was generally lower than caged scallops. Better survival of free-planted scallops in 2005 versus 2006 likely reflected the presence of luxuriant eelgrass beds in 2005, which were absent in 2006. Survival of scallops in ADPI bags was not appreciably related to stocking density. Shell growth was highest for free-planted scallops; in cages, growth was somewhat better at 50 versus 200 scallops/bag. Wet weights of epibionts were significantly higher in caged versus free-planted scallops. Reproductive condition of scallops stocked at 50/bag was usually higher than at 200/bag. Both free-planting and off-bottom systems yielded high densities of adult bay scallops at the time of spawning, which ensures a higher probability of successful fertilization of spawned eggs and thus a greater potential for success of restoration efforts. © 2010 Springer Science+Business Media B.V. Source


Tettelbach S.T.,LIU Post | Peterson B.J.,University of Southampton | Carroll J.M.,University of Southampton | Carroll J.M.,University of North Carolina at Wilmington | And 7 more authors.
Marine Ecology Progress Series | Year: 2015

Intensive efforts to restore bay scallop Argopecten irradians irradians populations and fisheries in the Peconic Bays of eastern Long Island, New York, USA, were begun in 2006, following a 12 yr period during which commercial fishery landings averaged 1 to 2% of historical levels seen prior to 1985 to 1995 brown tide algal blooms. Compared to 2005 to 2006, natural population densities of 0+ yr scallops in fall increased 16× by 2007 in Orient Harbor (OH), the focus of our restoration efforts; by 2009, densities in OH and other, unplanted, embayments had increased by 110× and up to 331×, respectively. Spatial and temporal patterns paralleled those documented for larval recruitment; highly significant correlations between commercial harvest levels and both baywide larval settlement and juvenile benthic densities were revealed. Official fishery landings were 13× those of pre-restoration levels by 2010 and have remained relatively stable through 2013. Following commencement of restoration, dockside revenues and economic benefit to the regional economy have increased by ∼US$2 million and $20 million, respectively; our calculations suggest that these figures are 40% of actual numbers. Population resurgence is not correlated to temporal changes in predator populations or submerged aquatic vegetation cover. We conclude that rebuilding of Peconic bay scallop populations and fisheries has been driven by dramatic increases in bay scallop larval supply emanating from our intensive restoration efforts. By definition, we cannot say that Peconic bay scallops have attained an alternate stable state, but it is clear that dramatic increases in populations, fishery landings, and economic value are possible in just a few years. © Inter-Research 2015. Source

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