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Goldwasser Y.,Hebrew University of Jerusalem | Sazo M.R.M.,Cornell Cooperative Extension | Lanini W.T.,University of California at Davis
Weed Technology | Year: 2012

Field dodder is a parasitic plant that attaches to the stems and leaves of broadleaf plants, including weeds, field crops, vegetables, and ornamentals, throughout most agricultural regions of the world. Effective field dodder control is extremely difficult to achieve, due to the nature of attachment and close association between host and parasite, which requires a highly effective and selective herbicide to destroy the parasite without crop damage. Previous studies have demonstrated the tolerance of certain tomato varieties to dodder parasitism. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the ability of sulfonylurea herbicides to control field dodder under greenhouse and field conditions. Two greenhouse studies and three field studies were conducted to evaluate the efficiency and crop selectivity of the sulfonylurea herbicides sulfosulfuron, rimsulfuron, halosulfuron, and flazasulfuron in controlling field dodder parasitizing tomato plants. Sulfosulfuron at 50 or 100 g ai ha -1 was effective and safe for tomato in field dodder control, while the other herbicides exhibited little or no dodder control.


Schuldt J.,Schenectady County Public Health Services | Levings J.L.,Centers for Disease Control and Prevention | Kahn-Marshall J.,Cornell Cooperative Extension | Hunt G.,Schenectady County Public Health Services | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Public Health Management and Practice | Year: 2014

Excess sodium intake can lead to increased blood pressure. Restaurant foods contribute nearly a quarter of the sodium consumed in the American diet. The objective of the pilot project was to develop and implement in collaboration with independent restaurants a tool, the Restaurant Assessment Tool and Evaluation (RATE), to assess efforts to reduce sodium in independent restaurants and measure changes over time in food preparation categories, including menu, cooking techniques, and products. Twelve independent restaurants in Schenectady County, New York, voluntarily participated. From initial assessment to a 6-month follow-up assessment using the RATE, 11 restaurants showed improvement in the cooking category, 9 showed improvement in the menu category, and 7 showed improvement in the product category. Menu analysis conducted by the Schenectady County Health Department staff suggested that reported sodium-reduction strategies might have affected approximately 25% of the restaurant menu items. The findings from this project suggest that a facilitated assessment, such as the RATE, can provide a useful platform for independent restaurant owners and public health practitioners to discuss and encourage sodium reduction. The RATE also provides opportunities to build and strengthen relationships between public health care practitioners and independent restaurant owners, which may help sustain the positive changes made. © 2014 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.


McBride M.B.,Cornell University | Shayler H.A.,Cornell University | Spliethoff H.M.,New York State Department of Health | Mitchell R.G.,New York State Department of Health | And 5 more authors.
Environmental Pollution | Year: 2014

Paired vegetable/soil samples from New York City and Buffalo, NY, gardens were analyzed for lead (Pb), cadmium (Cd) and barium (Ba). Vegetable aluminum (Al) was measured to assess soil adherence. Soil and vegetable metal concentrations did not correlate; vegetable concentrations varied by crop type. Pb was below health-based guidance values (EU standards) in virtually all fruits. 47% of root crops and 9% of leafy greens exceeded guidance values; over half the vegetables exceeded the 95th percentile of market-basket concentrations for Pb. Vegetable Pb correlated with Al; soil particle adherence/incorporation was more important than Pb uptake via roots. Cd was similar to market-basket concentrations and below guidance values in nearly all samples. Vegetable Ba was much higher than Pb or Cd, although soil Ba was lower than soil Pb. The poor relationship between vegetable and soil metal concentrations is attributable to particulate contamination of vegetables and soil characteristics that influence phytoavailability. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


PubMed | Cornell Cooperative Extension, Cornell University and New York State Department of Health
Type: | Journal: Environmental pollution (Barking, Essex : 1987) | Year: 2014

Paired vegetable/soil samples from New York City and Buffalo, NY, gardens were analyzed for lead (Pb), cadmium (Cd) and barium (Ba). Vegetable aluminum (Al) was measured to assess soil adherence. Soil and vegetable metal concentrations did not correlate; vegetable concentrations varied by crop type. Pb was below health-based guidance values (EU standards) in virtually all fruits. 47% of root crops and 9% of leafy greens exceeded guidance values; over half the vegetables exceeded the 95th percentile of market-basket concentrations for Pb. Vegetable Pb correlated with Al; soil particle adherence/incorporation was more important than Pb uptake via roots. Cd was similar to market-basket concentrations and below guidance values in nearly all samples. Vegetable Ba was much higher than Pb or Cd, although soil Ba was lower than soil Pb. The poor relationship between vegetable and soil metal concentrations is attributable to particulate contamination of vegetables and soil characteristics that influence phytoavailability.


Robinson T.L.,Cornell University | Miranda Sazo M.,Cornell Cooperative Extension
Acta Horticulturae | Year: 2014

Field experiments were conducted at Wolcott, New York, USA in 2011 and at Quincy, Washington, USA and San Fernando, Chile in 2012 where we compared the effect of summer sprays of varying doses and number of Promalin, benzyladenine (MaxCel or Cylex) or cyclanilide (Tiberon) on the number, length and angle of lateral branches of several apple cultivars. Cyclanilide sprays stimulated significant lateral branch formation but caused a rapidly reduction in terminal shoot elongation rate and a significant reduction in final tree height. This effect was dose dependent and the negative effects on tree growth were more evident in NY State than in Washington State. This was likely due to greater shoot growth rate in Washington than New York. MaxCel and Promalin each induced significant number of lateral branches but did not slow shoot growth rate as significantly as Tiberon thus had a smaller negative effect on final tree height. The angle of lateral branches was more acute with Promalin than with MaxCel. The number of lateral branches was increased with increasing number of sprays (up to 3 sprays in New York State and up to 5 in Washington and Chile). Some trees in Washington had more than 20 lateral branches. There was little difference in the two rates of MaxCel (500 mg/L and 1,000 mg/L). There were significant variety effects with 'Gala', 'Fuji', 'McIntosh' and 'Empire' producing more lateral branches than 'Macoun'.


Hsu C.L.,Cornell University | Hoepting C.A.,Cornell Cooperative Extension | Fuchs M.,Cornell University | Shelton A.M.,Cornell University | Nault B.A.,Cornell University
Environmental Entomology | Year: 2010

Onion thrips, Thrips tabaci (Lindeman) (Thysanoptera: Thripidae), can reduce onion bulb yield and transmit iris yellow spot virus (IYSV) (Bunyaviridae: Tospovirus), which can cause additional yield losses. In New York, onions are planted using seeds and imported transplants. IYSV is not seed transmitted, but infected transplants have been found in other U.S. states. Transplants are also larger than seeded onions early in the season, and thrips, some of which may be viruliferous, may preferentially colonize larger plants. Limited information is available on the temporal dynamics of IYSV and its vector in onion fields. In 2007 and 2008, T. tabaci and IYSV levels were monitored in six seeded and six transplanted fields. We found significantly more thrips in transplanted fields early in the season, but by the end of the season seeded fields had higher levels of IYSV. The percentage of sample sites with IYSV-infected plants remained low (<12%) until August, when infection levels increased dramatically in some fields. The densities of adult and larval thrips in August and September were better predictors of final IYSV levels than early season thrips densities. For 2007 and 2008, the time onions were harvested may have been more important in determining IYSV levels than whether the onions were seeded or transplanted. Viruliferous thrips emigrating from harvested onion fields into nonharvested ones may be increasing the primary spread of IYSV in late-harvested onions. Managing T. tabaci populations before harvest, and manipulating the spatial arrangement of fields based on harvest date could mitigate the spread of IYSV. © 2010 Entomological Society of America.


Hsu C.L.,Cornell University | Hoepting C.A.,Cornell Cooperative Extension | Fuchs M.,Cornell University | Smith E.A.,Cornell University | Nault B.A.,Cornell University
Plant Disease | Year: 2011

Iris yellow spot virus (IYSV) has been found consistently in commercial dry bulb onion fields throughout New York State since 2006. Yearly recurrence of IYSV may result from annual reintroductions of the virus or persistence of the virus in overwintering host plants. To identify potential sources of IYSV, we surveyed onion transplants imported into New York as well as volunteer onion plants and weeds using a double-antibody sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. IYSV was not found in any of 1,097 transplant samples tested in 2007 but 4 of 760 (0.53%) transplant samples tested positive in 2008. IYSV was found in volunteer onion plants in 3 of 10 (30%) onion fields sampled in 2007, in 4 of 27 (15%) onion fields sampled in 2008, and in 6 of 12 (50%) onion cull piles sampled in 2008. In all, 4 of 17 weed species (i.e., chicory [Cichorium intybus], common burdock [Arctium minus], curly dock [Rumex crispus], and dandelion [Taraxacum officinale]), were confirmed to be infected with IYSV using serological and molecular testing methods. IYSV may be reintroduced annually into New York through imported onion transplants but it also persists in volunteer onion plants and selected weed species. © 2011 The American Phytopathological Society.


Vaghefi N.,Cornell University | Hay F.S.,Cornell University | Kikkert J.R.,Cornell Cooperative Extension | Pethybridge S.J.,Cornell University
Plant Disease | Year: 2016

Cercospora leaf spot (CLS), caused by Cercospora beticola, is one of the major diseases affecting productivity and profitability of beet production worldwide. Fungicides are critical for the control of this disease and one of the most commonly used products is the quinone outside inhibitor (QOI) azoxystrobin. In total, 150 C. beticola isolates were collected from two commercial processing table beet fields in Batavia, NY in 2014. The mating types of the entire population were determined, and genetic diversity of a subset of samples (n = 48) was assessed using five microsatellite loci. Sensitivity to azoxystrobin was tested using a spore germination assay. The cytochrome b gene was sequenced to check for the presence of point mutations known to confer QOI resistance in fungi. High allelic diversity (He = 0.50) and genotypic diversity (D* = 0.96), gametic equilibrium of the microsatellite loci, and equal ratios of mating types were suggestive of a mixed mode of reproduction forC. beticola. Resistance to azoxystrobin was prevalent because 41% of the isolates had values for effective concentrations reducing spore germination by 50% (EC50) > 0.2 μg/ml. The G143A mutation, known to cause QOI resistance in C. beticola, was found in isolates with EC50 values between 0.207 and 19.397 μg/ml. A single isolate with an EC50 of 0.272 μg/ml carried the F129L mutation, known to be associated with low levels of QOI resistance in fungi. This is the first report of the F129L mutation in C. beticola. The implications of these findings for the epidemiology and control of CLS in table beet fields in New York are discussed. © 2016 The American Phytopathological Society.


PubMed | Cornell Cooperative Extension, Biocontrol, U.S. Department of Agriculture, Cornell University and 9 more.
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Environmental entomology | Year: 2015

A recent identification of the two-component aggregation pheromone of the invasive stink bug species, Halyomorpha halys (Stl), in association with a synergist, has greatly improved the ability to accurately monitor the seasonal abundance and distribution of this destructive pest. We evaluated the attraction of H. halys to black pyramid traps baited with lures containing the pheromone alone, the synergist methyl (2E,4E,6Z)-decatrienoate (MDT) alone, and the two lures in combination. Traps were deployed around areas of agricultural production including fruit orchards, vegetables, ornamentals, or row crops in Delaware, Maryland, North Carolina, New Jersey, New York, Ohio, Oregon, Pennsylvania, Virginia, and West Virginia from mid-April to mid-October, 2012 and 2013. We confirmed that H. halys adults and nymphs are attracted to the aggregation pheromone season long, but that attraction is significantly increased with the addition of the synergist MDT. H. halys adults were detected in April with peak captures of overwintering adults in mid- to late May. The largest adult captures were late in the summer, typically in early September. Nymphal captures began in late May and continued season long. Total captures declined rapidly in autumn and ceased by mid-October. Captures were greatest at locations in the Eastern Inland region, followed by those in the Eastern Coastal Plain and Pacific Northwest. Importantly, regardless of location in the United States, all mobile life stages of H. halys consistently responded to the combination of H. halys aggregation pheromone and the synergist throughout the entire season, suggesting that these stimuli will be useful tools to monitor for H. halys in managed systems.


News Article | April 3, 2016
Site: phys.org

Buoyed by Democratic Gov. Andrew Cuomo's renewable energy plan and the extension of the 30 percent federal tax credit in December, solar companies in recent months have blanketed rural areas with mailings seeking leases on farmland for solar arrays spanning 20 acres or more. While some farmers welcome the opportunity to earn up to $2,000 an acre annually for the next 20 years or so, some agricultural advisers, community leaders and lawyers are urging caution. "These are complex business transactions masquerading as lottery tickets," said Chris Denton, a southern New York lawyer who helped landowner groups negotiate oil and gas leases during the Marcellus Shale gas rush in 2009. "There are unexamined risks and environmental impacts. That's why landowners are banding together again to formulate leases that will protect their interests." Manna Jo Greene, environmental director for the nonprofit Hudson River Sloop Clearwater, said the developing solar boom is welcome but only if it's done right. While a solar development is a beneficial use for a former landfill, it might not be appropriate for prime farmland, she said. And there are many questions concerning zoning, agricultural tax benefits, effects on farm operations, and the eventual decommissioning and disposal of the solar components. "A lease promising $20,000 or $40,000 a year is tempting to farmers who are struggling," said Greene, who is also an Ulster County legislator. "But we're trying to get the word out to be cautious and not let a developer strip them of their property rights." The Cuomo administration's initiatives aimed at promoting local renewable energy generation, reducing greenhouse gas emissions and generating 50 percent of the state's energy from renewable sources by 2030 are bringing solar developers to the state. One company, Santa Monica, California-based Cypress Creek Renewables, has mass-mailed lease offers to hundreds of upstate landowners. "We expect to have operational projects in every utility load distribution zone in New York by the end of 2017," said Cypress Creek spokesman Jeff McKay. The company already has operational sites in North and South Carolina, Texas, Indiana, Missouri, Minnesota, Oregon and Georgia, he said. "New York's solar industry is growing at unprecedented levels," said Department of Public Service spokesman Jon Sorensen. He said that the state doesn't have figures on solar leasing activity but that energy and agriculture agencies are developing information to help farmers make leasing decisions. "It's happening so fast, it's caught people off-guard," said Elizabeth Higgins of the Cornell Cooperative Extension in Ulster County. Several New York towns, including the Orange County town of Goshen, have enacted moratoriums on new solar farms to allow officials to consider any zoning changes that might be necessary. A similar solar boom has been going on in North Carolina for about four years, driven by state-mandated rules for utility power purchases that favor solar developers. At least 200 commercial solar farms have been established in North Carolina, mostly around 5 megawatts but ranging to up to 80 megawatts, said Tommy Cleveland of North Carolina State University's Clean Energy Technology Center. Objections similar to those being raised in New York were raised in North Carolina. "There has been concern about taking prime land out of farm production," he said. "In the last two years, we've installed more than any state other than California, and it's still only a tenth of a percent of our farmland." For some farmers in New York, the leases could mean salvation. Marginal land could become productive, and prime cropland could produce income without labor and other costs during a 20-year lease, with the potential to one day return to crop production. "I've been looking for anything and everything to get some other income for my farm," said Mike Athanas, a retired electronics technician who has a 184-acre farm in Hyde Park in the Hudson Valley. "The taxes are killing me. My vegetable business doesn't have much profit margin. And some of the soil isn't the best for planting." Athanas recently signed an option with Boston-based Omni Navitas Holdings to lease two 20-acre parcels where he used to grow hay. He hopes to get at least $2,000 per acre annually after the solar panels go up this summer. "I've always wanted to have a vineyard," Athanas said. "This may give me the extra capital I need to while away my hours growing grapes for local wineries."

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