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Robinson T.L.,Cornell University | Miranda Sazo M.,Cornell Cooperative Extension
Acta Horticulturae | Year: 2014

Field experiments were conducted at Wolcott, New York, USA in 2011 and at Quincy, Washington, USA and San Fernando, Chile in 2012 where we compared the effect of summer sprays of varying doses and number of Promalin, benzyladenine (MaxCel or Cylex) or cyclanilide (Tiberon) on the number, length and angle of lateral branches of several apple cultivars. Cyclanilide sprays stimulated significant lateral branch formation but caused a rapidly reduction in terminal shoot elongation rate and a significant reduction in final tree height. This effect was dose dependent and the negative effects on tree growth were more evident in NY State than in Washington State. This was likely due to greater shoot growth rate in Washington than New York. MaxCel and Promalin each induced significant number of lateral branches but did not slow shoot growth rate as significantly as Tiberon thus had a smaller negative effect on final tree height. The angle of lateral branches was more acute with Promalin than with MaxCel. The number of lateral branches was increased with increasing number of sprays (up to 3 sprays in New York State and up to 5 in Washington and Chile). Some trees in Washington had more than 20 lateral branches. There was little difference in the two rates of MaxCel (500 mg/L and 1,000 mg/L). There were significant variety effects with 'Gala', 'Fuji', 'McIntosh' and 'Empire' producing more lateral branches than 'Macoun'.

Yoon T.M.,Kyungpook National University | Robinson T.L.,Cornell University | Osborne J.L.,Cornell Cooperative Extension
Acta Horticulturae | Year: 2011

The thinning response of 'Redhaven' and 'Babygold 5' peaches to rate and timing of ammonium thio-sulfate (ATS), lime sulfur plus fish oil (LS+FO) and Tergitol® sprays was studied in a field trial at Geneva, New York State, USA in 2007. With 'Redhaven', ATS showed increased thinning with increasing rate with the high rate of ATS (4.5%) resulting in over-thinning (11% fruit set). The lower rates of ATS 1.5% or 3% ATS resulted in intermediate fruit set but less thinning than the hand thinned controls. Tergitol® also caused increased thinning as rate increased with excessive thinning at the highest rate (3%) which had only 4% fruit set. At the lower rates of 1% or 2% Tergitol fruit set was similar to the hand thinned controls. LS+FO did not show a rate response with similar thinning at 1, 2 or 3%. Two applications of ATS, LS+FO or Tergitol reduced fruit set more than one application. Two sprays of 1% Tergitol burned most of the flowers and led to only 5% fruit set. Considering both yield and fruit size, two sprays of 1% or 2% LS+FO, 2 sprays of 3% ATS or a single spray of 2% Tergitol seem to be promising to thin 'Redhaven' peach blossoms. With 'Babygold 5', Tergitol and ATS caused greater thinning as the rate increased but the high rate of Tergitol (3%) burned almost all flowers. Two sprays of 1.5% ATS and 2% LS+FO reduced crop load more effectively than a single spray. Two sprays of 0.5% Tergitol effectively thinned blossoms but when the rate was higher (1%), the spray almost eliminated fruit set. Considering both yield and fruit size a single spray of 4.5% ATS, 1% Tergitol or 3% LS+FO at 80% bloom, look promising as blossom thinning treatments for 'Babygold 5'. Alternatively, two sprays of 1.5% ATS, 0.5% Tergitol or 2% LS+FO at 50% and 80% bloom, were also promising.

Hsu C.L.,Cornell University | Hoepting C.A.,Cornell Cooperative Extension | Fuchs M.,Cornell University | Smith E.A.,Cornell University | Nault B.A.,Cornell University
Plant Disease | Year: 2011

Iris yellow spot virus (IYSV) has been found consistently in commercial dry bulb onion fields throughout New York State since 2006. Yearly recurrence of IYSV may result from annual reintroductions of the virus or persistence of the virus in overwintering host plants. To identify potential sources of IYSV, we surveyed onion transplants imported into New York as well as volunteer onion plants and weeds using a double-antibody sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. IYSV was not found in any of 1,097 transplant samples tested in 2007 but 4 of 760 (0.53%) transplant samples tested positive in 2008. IYSV was found in volunteer onion plants in 3 of 10 (30%) onion fields sampled in 2007, in 4 of 27 (15%) onion fields sampled in 2008, and in 6 of 12 (50%) onion cull piles sampled in 2008. In all, 4 of 17 weed species (i.e., chicory [Cichorium intybus], common burdock [Arctium minus], curly dock [Rumex crispus], and dandelion [Taraxacum officinale]), were confirmed to be infected with IYSV using serological and molecular testing methods. IYSV may be reintroduced annually into New York through imported onion transplants but it also persists in volunteer onion plants and selected weed species. © 2011 The American Phytopathological Society.

Kahn-Marshall J.L.,Cornell Cooperative Extension | Gallant M.P.,Albany State University
Health Education and Behavior | Year: 2012

As employers look for ways to reduce rising health care costs, worksite health promotion interventions are increasingly being used to improve employee health behaviors. An alternative approach to traditional worksite health promotion programs is the implementation of environmental and/or policy changes to encourage employees to adopt healthier behaviors. This review examines the evidence for the effectiveness of worksite health promotion programs using environmental and/or policy changes either alone or in combination with individually focused health behavior change strategies. A review of the relevant literature, published between 1995 and 2010, identified 27 studies that met all inclusion criteria. Limited evidence was found for the effectiveness of environmental and/or policy changes alone (n = 11) to change employee behavior, but more promising results were identified with multicomponent interventions (n = 16). There is a strong need for improvement in the design and evaluation of future health promotion programs focusing solely on environmental and/or policy changes at the worksite. © 2012 Society for Public Health Education.

Goldwasser Y.,Hebrew University of Jerusalem | Sazo M.R.M.,Cornell Cooperative Extension | Lanini W.T.,University of California at Davis
Weed Technology | Year: 2012

Field dodder is a parasitic plant that attaches to the stems and leaves of broadleaf plants, including weeds, field crops, vegetables, and ornamentals, throughout most agricultural regions of the world. Effective field dodder control is extremely difficult to achieve, due to the nature of attachment and close association between host and parasite, which requires a highly effective and selective herbicide to destroy the parasite without crop damage. Previous studies have demonstrated the tolerance of certain tomato varieties to dodder parasitism. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the ability of sulfonylurea herbicides to control field dodder under greenhouse and field conditions. Two greenhouse studies and three field studies were conducted to evaluate the efficiency and crop selectivity of the sulfonylurea herbicides sulfosulfuron, rimsulfuron, halosulfuron, and flazasulfuron in controlling field dodder parasitizing tomato plants. Sulfosulfuron at 50 or 100 g ai ha -1 was effective and safe for tomato in field dodder control, while the other herbicides exhibited little or no dodder control.

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