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Mount Vernon, IA, United States

Cornell College is a private liberal arts college in Mount Vernon, Iowa. Originally called the Iowa Conference Seminary, the school was founded in 1853 by Reverend Samuel M. Fellows. Four years later, in 1857, the name was changed to Cornell College, in honor of iron tycoon William Wesley Cornell, who was a distant relative of Ezra Cornell . Wikipedia.


Alexopoulos G.S.,Cornell College | Arean P.,University of California at San Francisco
Molecular Psychiatry | Year: 2014

A critical task for psychotherapy research is to create treatments that can be used by community clinicians. Streamlining of psychotherapies is a necessary first step for this purpose. We suggest that neurobiological knowledge has reached the point of providing biologically meaningful behavioral targets, thus guiding the development of effective, simplified psychotherapies. This view is supported by the Research Domain Criteria (RDoC) Project, which reflects the field's consensus and recognizes the readiness of neurobiology to guide research in treatment development. 'Engage' is an example of such a streamlined therapy. It targets behavioral domains of late-life depression grounded on RDoC constructs using efficacious behavioral strategies selected for their simplicity. 'Reward exposure' targeting the behavioral expression of positive valence systems' dysfunction is the principal therapeutic vehicle of 'Engage'. Its first three sessions consist of direct 'reward exposure', but the therapists search for barriers in three behavioral domains, that is, 'negativity bias' (negative valence), 'apathy' (arousal) and 'emotional dysregulation' (cognitive control), and add strategies targeting these domains when needed. The end result is a structured, stepped approach using neurobiological constructs as targets and as a guide to personalization. We argue that the 'reduction' process needed in order to arrive to simplified effective therapies can be achieved in three steps: (1) identify RDoC constructs driving the syndrome's psychopathology; (2) create a structured intervention utilizing behavioral and ecosystem modification techniques targeting behaviors related to these constructs; (3) examine whether the efficacy of the new intervention is mediated by change in behaviors related to the targeted RDoC constructs. © 2014 Macmillan Publishers Limited. Source


Quigley E.M.M.,Cornell College
Current Opinion in Gastroenterology | Year: 2016

Purpose of review This article evaluates the current status of the gut barrier in gastrointestinal disorders. Recent findings The gut barrier is a complex, multicomponent, interactive, and bidirectional entity that includes, but is not restricted to, the epithelial cell layer. Intestinal permeability, the phenomenon most readily and commonly studied, reflects just one (albeit an important one) function of the barrier that is intimately related to and interacts with luminal contents, including the microbiota. The mucosal immune response also influences barrier integrity; effects of inflammation per se must be accounted for in the interpretation of permeability studies in disease states. Summary Although several aspects of barrier function can be assessed in man, one must be aware of exactly what a given test measures, as well as of its limitations. The temptation to employ results from a test of paracellular flux to imply a role for barrier dysfunction in disorders thought to be based on bacterial or macromolecular translocation must be resisted. Although changes in barrier function have been described in several gastrointestinal disorders, their primacy remains to be defined. At present, few studies support efficacy for an intervention that improves barrier function in altering the natural history of a disease process. Copyright © 2016 Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. All rights reserved. Source


Men who have sex with men (MSM) bear a disproportionately higher burden of HIV infection than the general population. MSM in the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) are a largely hidden population because of a prevailing stigma towards this type of sexual behavior, thereby limiting the ability to assess infection transmission patterns among them. It is widely perceived that data are virtually nonexistent on MSM and HIV in this region. The objective of this review was to delineate, for the first time, the evidence on the epidemiology of HIV among MSM in MENA. This was a systematic review of all biological, behavioral, and other related data on HIV and MSM in MENA. Sources of data included PubMed (Medline), international organizations' reports and databases, country-level reports and databases including governmental and nongovernmental organization publications, and various other institutional documents. This review showed that onsiderable data are available on MSM and HIV in MENA. While HIV prevalence continues at low levels among different MSM groups, HIV epidemics appear to be emerging in at least few countries, with a prevalence reaching up to 28% among certain MSM groups. By 2008, the contribution of MSM transmission to the total HIV notified cases increased and exceeded 25% in several countries. The high levels of risk behavior (4-14 partners on average in the last six months among different MSM populations) and of biomarkers of risks (such as herpes simplex virus type 2 at 3%-54%), the overall low rate of consistent condom use (generally below 25%), the relative frequency of male sex work (20%-76%), and the substantial overlap with heterosexual risk behavior and injecting drug use suggest potential for further spread. This systematic review and data synthesis indicate that HIV epidemics appear to be emerging among MSM in at least a few MENA countries and could already be in a concentrated state among several MSM groups. There is an urgent need to expand HIV surveillance and access to HIV testing, prevention, and treatment services in a rapidly narrowing window of opportunity to prevent the worst of HIV transmission among MSM in the Middle East and North Africa. Please see later in the article for the Editors' Summary. Source


Lord C.,Cornell College | Bishop S.L.,University of California at San Francisco
Annual Review of Clinical Psychology | Year: 2015

This article provides a selective review of advances in scientific knowledge about autism spectrum disorder (ASD), using DSM-5 (Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, fifth edition) diagnostic criteria as a framework for the discussion. We review literature that prompted changes to the organization of ASD symptoms and diagnostic subtypes in DSM-IV, and we examine the rationale for new DSM-5 specifiers, modifiers, and severity ratings as well as the introduction of the diagnosis of social (pragmatic) communication disorder. Our goal is to summarize and critically consider the contribution of clinical psychology research, along with that of other disciplines, to the current conceptualization of ASD. © 2015 by Annual Reviews. All rights reserved. Source


Suhre K.,Cornell College | Suhre K.,Helmholtz Center for Environmental Research | Gieger C.,Helmholtz Center for Environmental Research
Nature Reviews Genetics | Year: 2012

Many complex disorders are linked to metabolic phenotypes. Revealing genetic influences on metabolic phenotypes is key to a systems-wide understanding of their interactions with environmental and lifestyle factors in their aetiology, and we can now explore the genetics of large panels of metabolic traits by coupling genome-wide association studies and metabolomics. These genome-wide association studies are beginning to unravel the genetic contribution to human metabolic individuality and to demonstrate its relevance for biomedical and pharmaceutical research. Adopting the most appropriate study designs and analytical tools is paramount to further refining the genotype-phenotype map and eventually identifying the part played by genetic influences on metabolic phenotypes. We discuss such design considerations and applications in this Review. © 2012 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved. Source

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