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Santa Barbara, CA, United States

Bortolomai I.,Unit of Molecular Therapies | Canevari S.,Unit of Molecular Therapies | Facetti I.,Unit of Molecular Therapies | De Cecco L.,Core Oncology | And 5 more authors.
Cell Cycle | Year: 2010

To investigate the tumor fraction with cancer stem/tumor initiating cell (CSC/TIC) characteristics, we tested the human cervical carcinoma cell lines A431, Caski and SiHa, by growth as non-adherent spheres in specific media and aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) enzymatic activity. A good correlation between the two parameters was observed and the highest levels were observed in A431 cell line that was selected for characterization of the CSC/TIC fraction. A431 parental cells already displayed characteristics common to CSC/TIC, such as sphere forming efficiency, adherent holoclone formation and high ALDH activity. Non-adherent spheres maintained or increased these properties, and, in particular, ALDH-positive fraction increased from 46 to 65% and a transient induction of stem cell markers such as Nanog, Nestin and Oct4 was observed. Furthermore, a significant increase of paraclone forming cells was observed, suggesting that differentiation took place inside sphere cell populations. As compared to parental cells, spheres were characterized by: (1) a ten-fold higher verapamil-sensitive side population fraction; (2) the appearance of a podoplanin-positive subpopulation characterized by a small cell size; (3) the ability to propagate tumors in nude mice at a lower cell dose. The global gene expression analysis demonstrated a strong and reversible modulation of 'sphere' phenotype in comparison to parental and sphere cells re-induced to adherent conditions. All together our results indicated that the growth of A431 cells as a non-adherent sphere was not sufficient by itself to define a stem-like population, but it was essential for the emergence of a small population of tumor cells with CSC properties. © 2010 Landes Bioscience.

Jiang K.,Core Oncology
Applied Immunohistochemistry and Molecular Morphology | Year: 2016

Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is an aggressive carcinoma, with most patients diagnosed at an advanced stage, with a 5-year survival rate of around 5%. An urgent need exists for identifying better diagnostic, prognostic, and therapeutic markers for this lethal disease. Recently, CA125 has been identified in PDAC, and the aim of this research is to study the changes in CA125 expression during the progression of benign pancreatic tissue (BPT) to PDAC and to assess its value as a biomarker of tumor growth. To address these questions, the cellular levels of CA125 in BPT and PDAC were measured using immunohistochemistry and compared on the basis of tumor staging, and the tissue microarray technology were constructed using resected pancreatic tissues. The staining reactions for each case were evaluated semiquantitatively using the histologic score system. Our investigation demonstrates a consistent and significant upregulation of CA125 during the transition from BPT to PDAC. We also found a direct correlation between CA125 immunohistochemistry score and tumor stage (P=0.02). In conclusion, our data indicate that CA125 plays a direct role in pancreatic carcinogenesis and suggests that it may eventually be used as a diagnostic and/or prognostic biomarker of pancreatic cancer. Prospective studies are recommended to evaluate further the diagnostic and prognostic capabilities of CA125 in PDAC, and further studies are warranted to assess the use of CA125 as a therapeutic marker. Copyright 2016 Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. All rights reserved.

Papeo G.,Nerviano Medical science S.r.l | Pulici M.,Core Oncology
Molecules | Year: 2013

From the second half of the 19th century up to modern times, the tremendous contribution of Italian chemists to the development of science resulted in the discovery of a number of innovative chemical transformations. These reactions were subsequently christened according to their inventors' name and so entered into the organic chemistry portfolio of "named organic reactions". As these discoveries were being conceived, massive social, political and geographical changes in these chemists' homeland were also occurring. In this review, a brief survey of known (and some lesser known) named organic reactions discovered by Italian chemists, along with their historical contextualization, is presented. © 2013 by the authors;.

Piutti C.,Nerviano Medical science S.r.l | Quartieri F.,Core Oncology
Molecules | Year: 2013

Nearly forty years ago, at the University of Rome, Giovanni Piancatelli and co-workers discovered the acid-catalyzed water-mediated rearrangement of 2-furylcarbinols into 4-hydroxycyclopentenones. These motifs are core components of several pharmacologically active compounds and precursors of many natural products. The main features of this reaction are the simple experimental conditions, the stereochemical outcome and the generality of the procedure. Consequently, a re-emergence of this reaction has been seen recently, including developments of the Piancatelli rearrangement with some interesting inter- and intramolecular variants. This review will mainly focus on the general aspects of the reaction along with its more recent applications. © 1996-2013 MDPI AG.

Yang T.X.,University of New South Wales | Morris D.L.,University of New South Wales | Chua T.C.,University of New South Wales | Chua T.C.,Core Oncology
Diseases of the Colon and Rectum | Year: 2013

BACKGROUND: Pelvic exenteration is a potentially curative treatment for locally advanced primary or recurrent rectal cancer. OBJECTIVE: This systematic review examines the current evidence regarding clinical and oncological outcomes in patients with locally advanced primary and recurrent rectal cancer who undergo pelvic exenteration. DATA SOURCES: A literature search of PubMed, Medline, and the Cochrane library was undertaken, and studies published in the English language from January 2000 to August 2012 were identified. STUDY SELECTION: Prospective and retrospective studies that report outcomes of pelvic exenteration for primary advanced and locally recurrent rectal cancer with or without subgroup evaluation were included for examination. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Oncological outcomes included 5-year survival, median survival, and local recurrence rates. Clinical outcomes included complication rates and perioperative mortality rates. RESULTS: A total of 23 studies with 1049 patients were reviewed. The complication rates ranged from 37% to 100% (median, 57%) and the perioperative mortality rate ranged from 0% to 25% (median, 2.2%). The rate of local recurrence ranged from 4.8% to 61% (median, 22%). The median survival for primary advanced rectal cancers was 14 to 93 months (median, 35.5 months) and 8 to 38 months (median, 24 months) for locally recurrent rectal cancer. LIMITATIONS: Our review was limited by the small sample sizes from single-institutional studies reporting outcomes over long periods of time with heterogeneity in both the disease and treatments reported. CONCLUSIONS: Although the human costs and risks are significant, the potentially favorable survival outcomes make this acceptable in the absence of other effective treatment modalities that would otherwise result in debilitating symptoms that afflict patients who have advanced pelvic malignancy. © The ASCRS 2013.

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