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Pedrajas J.R.,University of Jaen | Padilla C.A.,University of Cordoba, Spain | Padilla C.A.,Cordoba Maimonides Institute for Biomedical Research | McDonagh B.,University of Cordoba, Spain | And 3 more authors.
Antioxidants and Redox Signaling | Year: 2010

The mechanism for regeneration of the active-site "peroxidatic" cysteine in 1-Cys peroxiredoxins is a matter of debate. Saccharomyces cerevisiae Prx1 is a mitochondrial enzyme belonging to the 1-Cys Prx, whereas Grx2 is involved in antioxidant defense and localizes at the mitochondria, so we hypothesized that it could be a perfect candidate to resolve the sulfenate in Prx1 with GSH. In vitro experiments with purified Prx1p and Grx2p demonstrate that Grx2p, at concentrations <1μM, coupled to GSH, is a very efficient thiolic intermediary for the reduction of the peroxidatic Cys in Prx1p. Prx1p forms oligomeric aggregates natively, but depolymerizes down to a dimeric state after treatment with GSH. The catalytic cycle involves glutathionylation of dimeric Prx1p and deglutathionylation by Grx2p. Dihydrolipoamide, a genuine mitochondrial dithiol, can efficiently substitute for GSH. The activity is highest at alkaline pH, consistent with the conditions of active respiring mitochondria, and the process is highly specific for 1-Cys Prx because Grx2p is totally inactive with human PRX1, a typical 2-Cys Prx, as opposed to the promiscuity of Trx. Our results suggest that although Trx is the reductant involved in the reduction of peroxides by 2-Cys-Prx, Grx might be the natural resolving partner of 1-Cys Prx through a monothiolic mechanism. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 13, 249-258. Copyright © 2010, Mary Ann Liebert, Inc. Source

Pedrajas J.R.,University of Jaen | McDonagh B.,University of Liverpool | Hernandez-Torres F.,University of Jaen | Miranda-Vizuete A.,University of Seville | And 8 more authors.
Antioxidants and Redox Signaling | Year: 2016

A three-step catalytic cycle is common to all peroxiredoxins (Prxs), despite structural and kinetic differences. The second step in 1-Cys type Prxs is a matter of debate since they lack an additional cysteine to play the resolving role, as happens with the 2-Cys Prxs. The aim of this study was to elucidate the role of glutathione (GSH) in the thioredoxin-dependent peroxidase activity of Saccharomyces cerevisiae mitochondrial Prx1p, a 1-Cys type Prx. Results: The peroxidatic Cys91 residue of two Prx1p peptides can be linked by a disulfide, which can be reduced by thioredoxin and by GSH (Km=6.1 μM). GSH forms a mixed disulfide with the peroxidatic cysteine spontaneously in vitro and in vivo. Mitochondrial Trx3p deglutathionylates Prx1p without formation of GSSG so that GSH is not consumed in the process. The structural unit of native Prx1p is a dimer whose subunits are not covalently linked, but a hexameric assembly of three disulfide-bound dimers can also be formed. Innovation: GSH is presented as a protective cofactor of Prx1p, which is not consumed during the peroxidase reaction, but provides a robust mechanism as the resolving cysteine and efficiently prevents Prx1p overoxidation. GSH exerts these roles at concentrations well below those commonly considered necessary for its antioxidant and redox buffering functions. Conclusion: A 1-Cys peroxide scavenging mechanism operates in yeast mitochondria involving an autonomous glutathione molecule and the thioredoxin system, which could have universal validity. Prx1p is fairly well protected from overoxidation, questioning its role in a floodgate mechanism for H2O2 signaling. © 2016 Mary Ann Liebert, Inc. Source

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