Comeros-Raynal M.T.,Old Dominion University |
Choat J.H.,James Cook University |
Polidoro B.A.,Old Dominion University |
Clements K.D.,University of Auckland |
And 14 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2012
Parrotfishes and surgeonfishes perform important functional roles in the dynamics of coral reef systems. This is a consequence of their varied feeding behaviors ranging from targeted consumption of living plant material (primarily surgeonfishes) to feeding on detrital aggregates that are either scraped from the reef surface or excavated from the deeper reef substratum (primarily parrotfishes). Increased fishing pressure and widespread habitat destruction have led to population declines for several species of these two groups. Species-specific data on global distribution, population status, life history characteristics, and major threats were compiled for each of the 179 known species of parrotfishes and surgeonfishes to determine the likelihood of extinction of each species under the Categories and Criteria of the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Due in part to the extensive distributions of most species and the life history traits exhibited in these two families, only three (1.7%) of the species are listed at an elevated risk of global extinction. The majority of the parrotfishes and surgeonfishes (86%) are listed as Least Concern, 10% are listed as Data Deficient and 1% are listed as Near Threatened. The risk of localized extinction, however, is higher in some areas, particularly in the Coral Triangle region. The relatively low proportion of species globally listed in threatened Categories is highly encouraging, and some conservation successes are attributed to concentrated conservation efforts. However, with the growing realization of man's profound impact on the planet, conservation actions such as improved marine reserve networks, more stringent fishing regulations, and continued monitoring of the population status at the species and community levels are imperative for the prevention of species loss in these groups of important and iconic coral reef fishes. © 2012 Comeros-Raynal et al.
Weeks R.,James Cook University |
Alino P.M.,University of the Philippines at Diliman |
Atkinson S.,Wildlife Conservation Society |
Beldia II. P.,Conservation International Philippines |
And 21 more authors.
Coastal Management | Year: 2014
The Coral Triangle Marine Protected Area System aspires to become a region-wide, comprehensive, ecologically representative and well-managed system of marine protected areas (MPAs) and MPA networks. The development of this system will proceed primarily through the implementation of ecological, social, and governance MPA networks at the sub-national scale. We describe six case studies that exemplify different approaches taken to develop MPA networks in the Coral Triangle region at different scales: Nusa Penida in Indonesia; Tun Mustapha Park in Malaysia; Kimbe Bay in Papua New Guinea; Verde Island Passage in the Philippines; The Lauru Ridges to Reefs Protected Area Network in Choiseul, Solomon Islands; and Nino Konis Santana Park in Timor Leste. Through synthesis of these case studies, we identify five common themes that contributed to successful outcomes: (1) the need for multi-stakeholder and cross-level management institutions; (2) the value of integrating cutting-edge science with local knowledge and community-based management; (3) the importance of building local capacity; (4) using multiple-use zoning to balance competing objectives; and (5) participation in learning and governance networks. These lessons will be invaluable in guiding future efforts to expand the Coral Triangle Marine Protected Area System, and provide important insights for MPA practitioners elsewhere. © 2014 Copyright © Rebecca Weeks, Porfirio M. Aliño, Scott Atkinson, Pacifico Beldia Ii, Augustine Binson, Wilfredo L. Campos, Rili Djohani, Alison L. Green, Richard Hamilton, Vera Horigue, Robecca Jumin, Kay Kalim, Ahsanal Kasasiah, Jimmy Kereseka, Carissa Klein, Lynette Laroya, Sikula Magupin, Barbara Masike, Candice Mohan, Rui Miguel Da Silva Pinto, Agnetha Vave-Karamui, Cesar Villanoy, Marthen Welly, and Alan T. White. Published with license by Taylor & Francis.
Cros A.,Nature Conservancy |
Fatan N.A.,Natural Resources Management |
White A.,Nature Conservancy |
Teoh S.J.,Natural Resources Management |
And 13 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2014
In this paper we describe the construction of an online GIS database system, hosted by WorldFish, which stores bio-physical, ecological and socio-economic data for the 'Coral Triangle Area' in South-east Asia and the Pacific. The database has been built in partnership with all six (Timor-Leste, Malaysia, Indonesia, The Philippines, Solomon Islands and Papua New Guinea) of the Coral Triangle countries, and represents a valuable source of information for natural resource managers at the regional scale. Its utility is demonstrated using biophysical data, data summarising marine habitats, and data describing the extent of marine protected areas in the region. © 2014 Cros et al.
Ender A.I.,James Cook University |
Muhajir,Nature Conservancy |
Mangubhai S.,Nature Conservancy |
Wilson J.R.,Nature Conservancy |
And 3 more authors.
Marine Biodiversity Records | Year: 2014
Indonesia has a diverse range of cetacean species, yet there are few records of their distribution, especially from remote regions. Incidental sightings from aerial surveys were conducted in 2006 and boat-based surveys were conducted from 2006-2011 in Raja Ampat in the Bird's Head Seascape, Indonesia. This paper is the first to provide a species list and an indication of the spatial and temporal distribution of cetaceans in central and southern Raja Ampat. Seven dolphin and six whale species were documented, including Indo-Pacific humpback dolphins Sousa chinensis, Bryde's Balaenoptera edeni, sperm Physeter macrocephalus, killer Orcinus orca and pygmy killer Feresa attenuata whales. Temporal differences in sightings suggest Raja Ampat is an important area for migratory whale species and resident populations of Indo-Pacific humpback Sousa chinensis, spinner Stenella longirostris and common bottlenose Tursiops truncatus dolphins. Cetacean diversity was highest in the months of January-February, May and October-November, with most sightings recorded in Kofiau marine protected area and Dampier and Sagewin Straits. Diversity and species distribution data are critical for managing cetaceans in Indonesia. Emerging threats to cetaceans in Raja Ampat include seismic surveys for seabed oil and gas exploration, potential strikes from increasing ship traffic, entanglement in fishing nets and increasing discharge of plastic pollution from urban areas. In addition to regulations for marine protected areas, a wider conservation strategy is required to address or better manage emerging threats to Raja Ampat, and to ensure the long-term protection of resident and migratory dolphin and whale species. © Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom, 2014.