Chanda E.,National Malaria Control Center |
Mukonka V.M.,Copperbelt University |
Kamuliwo M.,National Malaria Control Center |
Macdonald M.B.,World Health Organization
Malaria Journal | Year: 2013
Background: While consensus on malaria vector control policy and strategy has stimulated unprecedented political-will, backed by international funding organizations and donors, vector control interventions are expansively being implemented based on assumptions with unequaled successes. This manuscript reports on the strategies, achievements and challenges of the past and contemporary malaria vector control efforts in Zambia. Case description. All available information and accessible archived documentary records on malaria vector control in Zambia were reviewed. Retrospective analysis of routine surveillance data from the Health Management Information System (HMIS), data from population-based household surveys and various operations research reports was conducted to assess the status in implementing policies and strategies. Discussion and evaluation. Empirical evidence is critical for informing policy decisions and tailoring interventions to local settings. Thus, the World Health Organization (WHO) encourages the adoption of the integrated vector management (IVM) strategy which is a rational decision making process for optimal use of available resources. One of the key features of IVM is capacity building at the operational level to plan, implement, monitor and evaluate vector control and its epidemiological and entomological impact. In Zambia, great progress has been made in implementing WHO-recommended vector control policies and strategies within the context of the IVM Global Strategic framework with strong adherence to its five key attributes. Conclusions: The country has solid, consistent and coordinated policies, strategies and guidelines for malaria vector control. The Zambian experience demonstrates the significance of a coordinated multi-pronged IVM approach effectively operationalized within the context of a national health system. © 2013 Chanda et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.
Kalyesubula R.,Makerere University |
Kalyesubula R.,Mulago National Referral and Teaching Hospital |
Wearne N.,University of Cape Town |
Semitala F.C.,Makerere University |
And 2 more authors.
Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes | Year: 2014
With the recent massive scale-up of access to antiretroviral therapy (ART) in resource-limited countries, HIV has become a chronic disease with new challenges. There is mounting evidence of an increased burden of renal and genitourinary diseases among HIV-infected persons caused by direct HIV viral effects and/or indirectly through the development of opportunistic infections, ART medication-related toxicities, and other noncommunicable diseases (NCDs). We review the epidemiology of HIV-associated renal and urogenital diseases, including interactions with kidney-related NCDs such as hypertension, diabetes mellitus, and cardiovascular disease. We also examine the current evidence regarding the impact of HIV infection on the development of urogenital diseases. Highly advisable in sub-Saharan Africa are the establishment of renal disease registries, reviews of existing clinical practice including cost-effectiveness studies, and the adoption and use of HIV-related NCD management, with training for different cadres of health providers. Epidemiological research priorities include prospective studies to evaluate the true prevalence and spectrum of HIV-related renal disease and their progression. Simple diagnostics tools should be evaluated, including urinary dipsticks and point-of-care urea and creatinine tests to screen for kidney injury in primary care settings. Study of urological manifestations of HIV can help determine the extent of disease and outcomes. As patients live longer on ART, the burden of renal and genitourological complications of HIV and of ART can be expected to increase with a commensurate urgency in both discovery and evidence-based improvements in clinical management. © 2014 by Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.
Mulenga D.,Copperbelt University
Rural and remote health | Year: 2013
Hypertension a major risk factor for cardiovascular disease and is the most widely recognized modifiable risk factor for this disease. There is little information on the prevalence and risk factors for hypertension in Zambia, and in particular in rural areas of the country. In order to contribute to the existing global literature on hypertension, particularly in rural Zambia, this study was conducted to determine the prevalence of hypertension and its correlates in two rural districts of Zambia, namely Kaoma and Kasama. A cross-sectional study using a modified World Health Organization (WHO) global non communicable diseases (NCD) surveillance initiative NCD-STEPwise approach was used. Proportions were compared using the Yates' corrected χ2 test, and a result yielding a p-value of less than 5% was considered significant. Bivariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were conducted. Factors that were significantly associated with the outcome in bivariate analyses were considered in a multivariate logistic regression analysis using a backward variable selection method. Adjusted odds ratios (AOR) and their 95% confidence intervals (CI) were reported. In total, 895 participants from Kaoma and 1198 participants from Kasama took part in the surveys. Overall, 25.8% participants (27.5% male, 24.6% female; p=0.373) in Kaoma and 30.3% (31.3% male, 29.5% female; p=0.531) in Kasama were hypertensive. In Kaoma, age and BMI were independently associated with hypertension. Compared with participants aged 45 years or older, participants aged 25-34 years were 60% (AOR=0.40, 95% CI [0.21, 0.56]) less likely to be hypertensive. Participants with BMI <18.5 and 18.5-24.9 were 54% (AOR=0.46, 95% CI [0.30, 0.69]) and 31% (AOR=0.69, 95% CI [0.49, 0.98]) less likely to be hypertensive compared with participants with BMI ≥30. In Kasama, age, smoking and heart rate were significantly associated with hypertension in multivariate analysis. Participants 25-34 years were 49% (AOR=0.51, 95% CI [0.41, 0.65]) less likely to be hypertensive compared with participants 45 years or older. Compared with participants who were non-smokers, smokers were 21% (AOR=1.21, 95% CI [1.02, 1.45]) more likely to be hypertensive. Participants who had heart rate >90 beats/min were 59% (AOR=1.59, 95% CI [1.17, 2.16]) more likely to be hypertensive compared with participants who had heart rate 60-90 beats/min. The findings reveal that hypertension is prevalent among rural residents in Kaoma and Kasama, Zambia. The disease is highly associated with age, BMI, smoking and heart rate. Efficient preventive strategies are needed to halt the growing trend of non-communicable diseases through the control of risk factors highlighted in this study.
Nyirenda V.R.,Copperbelt University
Herpetological Conservation and Biology | Year: 2015
I compared four areas under different protection regimes to ascertain the status of Nile Crocodiles (Crocodylus niloticus, Laurenti 1768) in the Lower Zambezi River reaches. I used a night spotlighting survey, conducted to sight Nile Crocodiles within the distance of ≤ 5 m to river banks, to establish indicators of crocodilian encounter rates and body size classes. I employed Global Positioning System (GPS) to determine spatial locations of sighted crocodiles and I categorized the size class of crocodiles I saw visually. High encounter rates coincided with high protection status along the river reaches and vise versa. The mean Nile Crocodile count for reaches with national parks flanks was 20.62 ± 0.44 (± SE) crocodiles/km river stretch while the overall mean for non-protected areas was 7.45 ± 0.76 (± SE) crocodiles/km river stretch. Further studies on impacts of protection regimes on persistence of crocodilians are needed. Although I studied crocodiles at a local regional scale, this study has applications and relevance to various protected areas management settings and species for biodiversity conservation. © 2015. Vincent R. Nyirenda. All Rights Reserved.
Louie H.,Copperbelt University
Energy for Sustainable Development | Year: 2016
Microgrids offer a pathway for electricity access to communities located far from the existing grid. Although the simulated operation of microgrids is well-reported in the literature, there is a dearth of analyses based on post-installation high-resolution measured data. This article examines the operation of hybrid solar/wind microgrids using measured data from a 5 kW system in Muhuru Bay, Kenya. The system was outfitted with data acquisition and broadcast equipment that samples battery voltage, current from the solar panels and wind turbines and other quantities on a minutely basis. Considering 14 months of data, this article provides statistical and time-series analyses and interpretation of hybrid solar/wind microgrid operation. The microgrid's energy supply and efficiency are analyzed and data-driven system diagnostic methods are presented. It is shown how microgrid controller set-points influence the prioritization of energy sources, favoring wind over solar energy, and that the long-term efficiency of the microgrid is 67%. Perspectives on how operational data can be used to improve utilization and prevent pre-mature failure are provided. © 2016 International Energy Initiative.
Kalaba F.K.,Copperbelt University
Biodiversity and Conservation | Year: 2014
Globally, there is increasing attention among academics, policymakers and development agencies in understanding interactions within forest socio-ecological systems to provide insights on human-environment interactions and how forest ecosystems contribute to human well-being. This is particularly important for biologically diverse dry and sub-humid forest ecological systems where livelihoods are heavily dependent on benefits derived directly from forests, yet human-environmental interactions remain poorly understood. In many developing countries, forests provide various services that significantly contribute to livelihood portfolios’ and generally to human well-being. Although it is widely acknowledged that benefits that humans obtain from ecosystems are fundamentally dependent on ecosystem functions and processes, the role of transforming structures and processes in converting ecological potential benefits into actual benefits utilised by people has not been addressed. This paper presents a conceptual framework for forest ecosystem services which shows the interactions between ecological and social components of forest socio-ecological systems, and provides steps through which ecosystem properties produce benefits to livelihoods. It argues that transforming structures have the potential to promote or hinder people from utilising ecosystems and therefore improved forest management requires in-depth understanding of transforming structures within spatially explicit forest socio-ecological systems. This paper then applies the proposed framework to Africa’s Miombo forest systems. © 2014, Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht.
Mwaanga P.,Clemson University |
Mwaanga P.,Copperbelt University |
Carraway E.R.,Clemson University |
van den Hurk P.,Clemson University
Aquatic Toxicology | Year: 2014
Whilst a considerable number of studies have been reported on the acute toxicity of nanoparticles (NPs) on invertebrates such as Daphnia magna, few studies have been reported on the biochemical change (biomarkers) induction on these species by NPs, especially metal oxide NPs. The aim of this study was to investigate some biomarkers in D. magna induced by copper oxide (CuO) and zinc oxide (ZnO) NPs under controlled laboratory conditions. We exposed the 5 day old D. magna for 72. h to sublethal concentration of CuO and ZnO NPs in synthetic moderately hard water (MHW) with and without dissolved natural organic matter (NOM) and estimated the glutathione- S-transferase (GST) activity, formation of oxidized glutathione (GSSG), and amounts of thiobarbituric acid reacting substances (TBARS) and metallothionein (MT). Additionally, complementary short term dissolution studies on CuO and ZnO NPs were conducted. The results showed inactivation of GST enzyme by both metal oxide NPs. The results also showed increased production of oxidized GSH, increased generation of TBARS and increased induction of MT. In the presence of NOM, significant reduction (p<. 0.05) in these biochemical changes was observed. These results indicated that oxidative stress is one of the toxicity mechanisms for these metal oxide NPs. Furthermore, the results suggest that these metal oxide NPs compromise the health of D. magna, and possibly other aquatic organisms, and therefore have potential to affect ecosystem stability. The short term dissolution studies showed that the proportion of dissolved NPs is higher (1.2% and 70% of initial concentration for dissolved Cu and Zn, respectively) at low particle concentration and is lower (0.4% and 17% of initial concentration for dissolved Cu and Zn, respectively) at higher particle concentration. These results suggest that the observed toxicity may be caused by both metal oxide nanoparticles and metal ions dissociated from the nanoparticles. © 2014 Elsevier B.V.
Kalaba F.K.,Copperbelt University
Forest Policy and Economics | Year: 2016
Policies play a vital role in setting priorities and actions for forest use and management. High rates of forest loss can be attributed to failure by policies to reduce deforestation and forest degradation. It is argued that in most Least Developed Countries such as Zambia, adopted forest and natural resources policies are rarely put into effect resulting in ecosystem degradation.This study examined policy actor's perception of implementation of policies aimed at reducing deforestation and forest degradation and their implications for forest resources.To examine policy implementation, 55 policy actors were interviewed at national, regional and local levels. This included government officials, Non-Governmental Organisations, traditional leaders and local people. Interviews were analysed using discourse analysis.Findings show that policy implementations deficits are prevalent in Zambia's forest sector. Policy actors identified the main barriers as inadequate institutional capacity, inadequate legal framework, political influences, insecure land tenure, poor funding, and lack of intersectoral coordination. The paper has shown gaps between policies and their implementation. To halt deforestation and forest degradation, it is imperative that formulated policies are implemented. This will require improved communication and coordination among government units and various stakeholders, sufficient resources and harmonizing policies and legal frameworks. © 2016 Elsevier B.V.
Ndiaye M.,Copperbelt University
Proceedings of SPIE - The International Society for Optical Engineering | Year: 2014
A fiber optic DC voltage sensor based on an intensity modulation scheme is proposed. Fiber optic voltage sensors have the advantage over conventional voltage sensors in that they offer voltage isolation and can easily be incorporated in telecommunication systems. The intensity modulation approach to sensing is a less costly and simpler measurement system compared to other available fiber optic voltage sensor techniques. Intensity modulation is achieved using a piezoelectric ceramic which produces a displacement on application of a voltage varying the transmitted optical power in a fiber to fiber coupling system. A critical analysis was performed on the theory behind the intensity modulation scheme for fiber voltage sensing. Simulations and experimental investigations based on this concept showed good linearity between the applied voltage and optical power in the fiber. The feasibility of obtaining a single valued relationship for voltage sensing purposes was also observed. The constructed voltage sensor produced useful results with the sensor exhibiting good linearity in forward and reverse voltages over a DC voltage of 0V to 100V but exhibited hysteresis. A linearity of 92% and 88.8% was measured for the forward and reverse voltages respectively and a dynamic range of approximately 0.3dB over the 100V range was achieved with a resolution of 1.9V. The hysteresis in the sensor was measured at 20%. Based on the results obtained recommendations have been made on a more linear, lower hysteresis and stable sensor of this type. © 2014 Copyright SPIE.
Zulu E.,Copperbelt University
IEEE PES PowerAfrica Conference, PowerAfrica 2016 | Year: 2016
Zambia Electricity Supply Corporation (ZESCO), which normally produces around 1950MW of power from its hydro power stations based mainly along the Zambezi and Kafue rivers, is the main power supplier in Zambia. This year the company has failed to generate enough power to meet the Zambian demand because of poor rainfall in the 2014/2015 rain season. It currently produces around 1200 MW. © 2016 IEEE.