Nyirenda V.R.,Copperbelt University
Herpetological Conservation and Biology | Year: 2015
I compared four areas under different protection regimes to ascertain the status of Nile Crocodiles (Crocodylus niloticus, Laurenti 1768) in the Lower Zambezi River reaches. I used a night spotlighting survey, conducted to sight Nile Crocodiles within the distance of ≤ 5 m to river banks, to establish indicators of crocodilian encounter rates and body size classes. I employed Global Positioning System (GPS) to determine spatial locations of sighted crocodiles and I categorized the size class of crocodiles I saw visually. High encounter rates coincided with high protection status along the river reaches and vise versa. The mean Nile Crocodile count for reaches with national parks flanks was 20.62 ± 0.44 (± SE) crocodiles/km river stretch while the overall mean for non-protected areas was 7.45 ± 0.76 (± SE) crocodiles/km river stretch. Further studies on impacts of protection regimes on persistence of crocodilians are needed. Although I studied crocodiles at a local regional scale, this study has applications and relevance to various protected areas management settings and species for biodiversity conservation. © 2015. Vincent R. Nyirenda. All Rights Reserved.
Choobwe C.,Malaria Institute at Macha |
Kamanga A.,London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine |
Mukonka V.M.,Copperbelt University
Malaria Journal | Year: 2013
Most measurements of malaria are based on cross-sectional data and do not reflect the dynamic nature of transmission, particularly when interventions require timely data for planning strategies. Such data can be collected from local rural health centres (RHCs) where the infrastructure is sufficiently developed and where rapid diagnostics are in use. Because in rural areas, the population served by RHC is reasonably static, the regular use of malaria rapid diagnosis in RHCs can provide data to assess local weekly incidence rates, and such data are easily dispersed by cell phones. Essentially each RHC is a potential sentinel site that can deliver critical information to programme planners. Data collected during this process of passive case detection over a five-year period in the Macha area of Zambia show the importance of ecological zones and refugia in the seasonal fluctuation of malaria cases. If this process is implemented nationally it can assist in planning efficient use of resources and may contribute to local management and even elimination of malaria in this region. © 2013 Shiff et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.
Mulenga D.,Copperbelt University
Rural and remote health | Year: 2013
Hypertension a major risk factor for cardiovascular disease and is the most widely recognized modifiable risk factor for this disease. There is little information on the prevalence and risk factors for hypertension in Zambia, and in particular in rural areas of the country. In order to contribute to the existing global literature on hypertension, particularly in rural Zambia, this study was conducted to determine the prevalence of hypertension and its correlates in two rural districts of Zambia, namely Kaoma and Kasama. A cross-sectional study using a modified World Health Organization (WHO) global non communicable diseases (NCD) surveillance initiative NCD-STEPwise approach was used. Proportions were compared using the Yates' corrected χ2 test, and a result yielding a p-value of less than 5% was considered significant. Bivariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were conducted. Factors that were significantly associated with the outcome in bivariate analyses were considered in a multivariate logistic regression analysis using a backward variable selection method. Adjusted odds ratios (AOR) and their 95% confidence intervals (CI) were reported. In total, 895 participants from Kaoma and 1198 participants from Kasama took part in the surveys. Overall, 25.8% participants (27.5% male, 24.6% female; p=0.373) in Kaoma and 30.3% (31.3% male, 29.5% female; p=0.531) in Kasama were hypertensive. In Kaoma, age and BMI were independently associated with hypertension. Compared with participants aged 45 years or older, participants aged 25-34 years were 60% (AOR=0.40, 95% CI [0.21, 0.56]) less likely to be hypertensive. Participants with BMI <18.5 and 18.5-24.9 were 54% (AOR=0.46, 95% CI [0.30, 0.69]) and 31% (AOR=0.69, 95% CI [0.49, 0.98]) less likely to be hypertensive compared with participants with BMI ≥30. In Kasama, age, smoking and heart rate were significantly associated with hypertension in multivariate analysis. Participants 25-34 years were 49% (AOR=0.51, 95% CI [0.41, 0.65]) less likely to be hypertensive compared with participants 45 years or older. Compared with participants who were non-smokers, smokers were 21% (AOR=1.21, 95% CI [1.02, 1.45]) more likely to be hypertensive. Participants who had heart rate >90 beats/min were 59% (AOR=1.59, 95% CI [1.17, 2.16]) more likely to be hypertensive compared with participants who had heart rate 60-90 beats/min. The findings reveal that hypertension is prevalent among rural residents in Kaoma and Kasama, Zambia. The disease is highly associated with age, BMI, smoking and heart rate. Efficient preventive strategies are needed to halt the growing trend of non-communicable diseases through the control of risk factors highlighted in this study.
Kalaba F.K.,Copperbelt University
Forest Policy and Economics | Year: 2016
Policies play a vital role in setting priorities and actions for forest use and management. High rates of forest loss can be attributed to failure by policies to reduce deforestation and forest degradation. It is argued that in most Least Developed Countries such as Zambia, adopted forest and natural resources policies are rarely put into effect resulting in ecosystem degradation.This study examined policy actor's perception of implementation of policies aimed at reducing deforestation and forest degradation and their implications for forest resources.To examine policy implementation, 55 policy actors were interviewed at national, regional and local levels. This included government officials, Non-Governmental Organisations, traditional leaders and local people. Interviews were analysed using discourse analysis.Findings show that policy implementations deficits are prevalent in Zambia's forest sector. Policy actors identified the main barriers as inadequate institutional capacity, inadequate legal framework, political influences, insecure land tenure, poor funding, and lack of intersectoral coordination. The paper has shown gaps between policies and their implementation. To halt deforestation and forest degradation, it is imperative that formulated policies are implemented. This will require improved communication and coordination among government units and various stakeholders, sufficient resources and harmonizing policies and legal frameworks. © 2016 Elsevier B.V.
Kalaba F.K.,Copperbelt University
Biodiversity and Conservation | Year: 2014
Globally, there is increasing attention among academics, policymakers and development agencies in understanding interactions within forest socio-ecological systems to provide insights on human-environment interactions and how forest ecosystems contribute to human well-being. This is particularly important for biologically diverse dry and sub-humid forest ecological systems where livelihoods are heavily dependent on benefits derived directly from forests, yet human-environmental interactions remain poorly understood. In many developing countries, forests provide various services that significantly contribute to livelihood portfolios’ and generally to human well-being. Although it is widely acknowledged that benefits that humans obtain from ecosystems are fundamentally dependent on ecosystem functions and processes, the role of transforming structures and processes in converting ecological potential benefits into actual benefits utilised by people has not been addressed. This paper presents a conceptual framework for forest ecosystem services which shows the interactions between ecological and social components of forest socio-ecological systems, and provides steps through which ecosystem properties produce benefits to livelihoods. It argues that transforming structures have the potential to promote or hinder people from utilising ecosystems and therefore improved forest management requires in-depth understanding of transforming structures within spatially explicit forest socio-ecological systems. This paper then applies the proposed framework to Africa’s Miombo forest systems. © 2014, Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht.