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Beck E.J.,Coordinating and Analytic Center | Beck E.J.,London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine | Mandalia S.,Coordinating and Analytic Center | Mandalia S.,Imperial College London | And 17 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2011

Aim: To calculate use, cost and cost-effectiveness of people living with HIV (PLHIV) starting routine treatment and care before starting combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) and PLHIV starting first-line 2NRTIs+NNRTI or 2NRTIs+PI boosted, comparing PLHIV with CD4≤200 cells/mm3 and CD4>200 cells/mm3. Few studies have calculated the use, cost and costeffectiveness of routine treatment and care before starting cART and starting cART above and below CD4 200 cells/mm3. Methods: Use, costs and cost-effectiveness were calculated for PLHIV in routine pre-cART and starting first-line cART, comparing CD4≤200 cells/mm3 with CD4>200 cells/mm3 (2008 UK prices). Results: cART naïve patients CD4≤200 cells/mm3 had an annual cost of £6,407 (95%CI £6,382 to £6,425) PPY compared with £2,758 (95%CI £2,752 to £2,761) PPY for those with CD4>200 cells/mm3; cost per life year gained of pre-cART treatment and care for those with CD4>200 cells/mm3 was £1,776 (cost-saving to £2,752). Annual cost for starting 2NRTIs+NNRTI or 2NRTIs+PI boosted with CD4≤200 cells/mm3 was £12,812 (95%CI £12,685-£12,937) compared with £10,478 (95%CI £10,376-£10,581) for PLHIV with CD4>200 cells/mm3. Cost per additional life-year gained on first-line therapy for those with CD4>200 cells/mm3 was £4639 (£3,967 to £2,960). Conclusion: PLHIV starting to use HIV services before CD4≤200 cells/mm3 is cost-effective and enables them to be monitored so they start cART with a CD4>200 cells/mm3, which results in better outcomes and is cost-effective. However, 25% of PLHIV accessing services continue to present with CD4≤200 cells/mm3. This highlights the need to investigate the cost-effectiveness of testing and early treatment programs for key populations in the UK. © 2011 Beck et al. Source


Beck E.J.,Coordinating and Analytic Center | Beck E.J.,London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine | Mandalia S.,Coordinating and Analytic Center | Mandalia S.,Imperial College London | And 18 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2011

Aim: Calculate time to first-line treatment failure, annual cost and cost-effectiveness of NNRTI versus PIboosted first-line HAART regimens in the UK, 1996-2006. Background: Population costs for HIV services are increasing in the UK and interventions need to be effective and efficient to reduce or stabilize costs. 2NRTIs + NNRTI regimens are cost-effective regimens for first-line HAART, but these regimens have not been compared with first-line PIboosted regimens. Methods: Times to first-line treatment failure and annual costs were calculated for first-line HAART regimens by CD4 count when starting HAART (2006 UK prices). Cost-effectiveness of 2NRTIs+NNRTI versus 2NRTIs+PIboosted regimens was calculated for four CD4 strata. Results: 55% of 5,541 people living with HIV (PLHIV) started HAART with CD4 count ≤200 cells/mm3, many of whom were Black Africans. Annual treatment cost decreased as CD4 count increased; most marked differences were observed between starting HAART with CD4 ≤200 cells/mm3 compared with CD4 count >200 cells/mm3. 2NRTI+PIboosted and 2NRTI+NNRTI regimens were the most effective regimens across the four CD4 strata; 2NRTI+NNRTI was cost-saving or cost-effective compared with 2NRTI + PIboosted regimens. Conclusion: To ensure more effective and efficient provision of HIV services, 2NRTI+NNRTI should be started as first-line HAART regimen at CD4 counts ≤350 cell/mm3, unless specific contra-indications exist. This will increase the number of PLHIV receiving HAART and will initially increase population costs of providing HIV services. However, starting PLHIV earlier on cost-effective regimens will maintain them in better health and use fewer health or social services, thereby generating fewer treatment and care costs, enabling them to remain socially and economically active members of society. This does raise a number of ethical issues, which will have to be acknowledged and addressed, especially in countries with limited resources. © 2011 Beck et al. Source


Beck E.J.,Coordinating and Analytic Center | Beck E.J.,London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine | Mandalia S.,Coordinating and Analytic Center | Mandalia S.,Imperial College London | And 13 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2012

Aim: Investigate the cost and effects of a single-pill versus two- or three pill first-line antiretroviral combinations in reducing viral load, increasing CD4 counts, and first-line failure rate associated with respective regimens at 6 and 12 months. Methods: Patients on first-line TDF+3TC+EFV, TDF+FTC+EFV, Truvada®+EFV or Atripla® between 1996-2008 were identified and viral load and CD4 counts measured at baseline, six and twelve months respectively. Factors that independently predicted treatment failure at six and twelve months were derived using multivariate Cox's proportional hazard regression analyses. Use and cost of hospital services were calculated at six and twelve months respectively. Results: All regimens reduced viral load to below the limit of detection and CD4 counts increased to similar levels at six and twelve months for all treatment regimens. No statistically significant differences were observed for rate of treatment failure at six and twelve months. People on Atripla® generated lower healthcare costs for non-AIDS patients at £5,340 (£5,254 to £5,426) per patient-semester and £9,821 (£9,719 to £9,924) per patient-year that was £1,344 (95%CI £1,222 to £1,465) less per patient-semester and £1,954 (95%CI £1,801 to £2,107) less per patient-year compared with Truvada®+EFV; healthcare costs for AIDS patients were similar across all regimens. Conclusion: The single pill regimen is as effective as the two- and three-pill regimens of the same drugs, but if started as first-line induction therapy there would be a 20% savings on healthcare costs at six and 17% of costs at twelve months compared with Truvada®+EFV, that generated the next lowest costs. © 2012 Beck et al. Source


Mandalia S.,Coordinating and Analytic Center | Mandalia S.,Imperial College London | Mandalia R.,Coordinating and Analytic Center | Lo G.,Coordinating and Analytic Center | And 20 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2010

Background: The number of people living with HIV (PLHIV) is increasing in the UK. This study estimated the annual population cost of providing HIV services in the UK, 1997-2006 and projected them 2007-2013. Methods: Annual cost of HIV treatment for PLHIV by stage of HIV infection and type of ART was calculated (UK pounds, 2006 prices). Population costs were derived by multiplying the number of PLHIV by their annual cost for 1997-2006 and projected 2007-2013. Results: Average annual treatment costs across all stages of HIV infection ranged from £17,034 in 1997 to £18,087 in 2006 for PLHIV on mono-therapy and from £27,649 in 1997 to £32,322 in 2006 for those on quadruple-or-more ART. The number of PLHIV using NHS services rose from 16,075 to 52,083 in 2006 and was projected to increase to 78,370 by 2013. Annual population cost rose from £104 million in 1997 to £483 million in 2006, with a projected annual cost between £721 and £758 million by 2013. When including community care costs, costs increased from £164 million in 1997, to £683 million in 2006 and between £1,019 and £1,065 million in 2013. Conclusions: Increased number of PLHIV using NHS services resulted in rising UK population costs. Population costs are expected to continue to increase, partly due to PLHIV's longer survival on ART and the relative lack of success of HIV preventing programs. Where possible, the cost of HIV treatment and care needs to be reduced without reducing the quality of services, and prevention programs need to become more effective. While high income countries are struggling to meet these increasing costs, middle- and lower-income countries with larger epidemics are likely to find it even more difficult to meet these increasing demands, given that they have fewer resources. © 2010 Mandalia et al. Source

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