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de Almeida J.A.S.,Instituto Agronomico Of Campinas | Leal R.R.,Instituto Agronomico Of Campinas | Carmazini V.C.B.,Instituto Agronomico Of Campinas | Salomon M.V.,Coordenadoria de Assistencia Tecnica Integral CATI | Guerreiro-Filho O.,Instituto Agronomico Of Campinas
Coffee Science | Year: 2014

The vegetative multiplication of Coffea arabica hybrids can be carried out by direct somatic embryogenesis. The objective of this study was to verify if temperature and cytokinins could influence the capacity for direct somatic embryogeneis in arabica genotypes. For this purpose foliar explants taken from adult plants of three C. arabica genotypes, hybrids 812 and 956 and cultivar Catuaí, were inoculated into a culture medium with 1/2 MS salts, 20.0 g l-1 sucrose and 30 μM 6-benzyladenine (6-BA) or 10 μM 2-isopenteniladenina (2-iP) and submitted to temperatures of 25 and 30 °C in the absence of light. The treatments were evaluated with respect to the number of somatic embryos formed per foliar explant, at 270 days after the beginning of the experiment. A completely random experimental design was adopted with a 3 × 2 × 2 (genotype × temperature × plant growth regulator) factorial scheme, with ten replications per treatment and two explants in each. Temperature of 30 °C favored significantly the formation of somatic embryos when compared to 25 °C and this response pattern predominated amongst the three genotypes. On the other hand, 6-BA and 2-iso-pentenladenine caused similar answers for the majority of genotypes. The results of this study showed that temperature has a significant influence on the direct somatic embryogenesis capacity of C. arabica genotypes. Source


Cursi P.R.,Coordenadoria de Assistencia Tecnica Integral CATI | Cicero S.M.,University of Sao Paulo
Journal of Seed Science | Year: 2014

Different pulping methods were analyzed for Euterpe edulis, with regard to its seed physiological quality, and the physiological performance of seeds submitted to continuous drying and monitored by radiographs was assessed. In order to do so, 2×2 factorial design treatments were carried out, using two different manners to store fruit prior to pulping, immersed in water and not. Also, two different methods for the pulping of fruit were used for each lot; namely, manual and mechanical. Seeds from fruit that had been immersed in water at 40 °C for 20 minutes showed greater physiological performance than those that had not been immersed in water previously. Immersion in water at 55 °C resulted in seed death. The pulp extraction method, whether manual or mechanical, did not affect seed physiological performance. Radiographs made it possible to observe that the volume occupied by embryos in the embryo cavity reduced with decreased water content. Mechanical pulping showed no reduction in percentage of seedling emergence for water content up to 33.3%. However, reduction in water content to 16.1% caused seed death. The drying of manually pulped seeds until reaching 39.0% water content did not adversely affect seedling emergence, whereas lower water contents than 25.6% caused seed death. Source


Torres L.M.,Coordenadoria de Assistencia Tecnica Integral CATI | Leonel M.,Sao Paulo State University | Mischan M.M.,Sao Paulo State University
Ciencia Rural | Year: 2012

The use of disqualifies ginger rhizomes as raw material for fresh fruit market is a way to allow the increase of ginger production. The starch is not directly fermentable, which requires prior hydrolysis to obtain glucose. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of concentrations of -amylase and amyloglucosidase on the yield and sugar profile in the process of hydrolysis-saccharification of ginger. The process followed the central composite design for two factors, totaling 11 treatments. The results showed the effect of concentrations of - amylase (Termamyl 2X) and amyloglucosidase (AMG 300L) on the glucose content and amyloglucosidase concentration effect on the content of dextrin. The higher yields of hydrolysis of the ginger suspension were obtained under conditions of high concentration of -amylase and amyloglucosidase. Source


Grassi A.M.,Coordenadoria de Assistencia Tecnica Integral CATI | Filho J.A.S.,Escola Superior de Agricultura Luiz de Queiroz ESALQ | Chagas E.A.,Embrapa Roraima | Pio R.,Federal University of Lavras | And 6 more authors.
Bragantia | Year: 2010

Loquat is a fruit of subtropical origin, but with wide adaptation in temperate regions with low, fairly rigorous temperatures. It presents an inflorescence that leads to higher quantity of fruit than the tree can support, resulting in a high quantity of low caliber fruit. To increase the fruit size is necessary to realize the thinning. Thus, the objective of this work was to evaluate the effects of thinning intensities on the loquat fruit quality. It was studied five cultivars and one loquat selection and four thinning intensities (4, 6, 8, and 10 fruit per panicle). Panicles were selected according to equivalent sizes (1.5 cm in diameter, approximately) and wrapping using a newspaper. All the panicles were thinning and wrapping in the same day. The harvest was done when the fruit were ripe, at the consumption point. It was evaluated the fruit length and width, seed and fruit weight, pH, titratable acidity, and total soluble solids. The results showed that thinning with intensities of 4 fruit resulted in loquat with superior length, width and weight. The seed weight, pH, titratable acidity and total soluble solids are not affected by thinning intensity. Source


Zorzete P.,University of Sao Paulo | Reis T.A.,University of Sao Paulo | Felicio J.D.,Instituto Biologico | Baquiao A.C.,University of Sao Paulo | And 2 more authors.
Food Chemistry | Year: 2011

The aim of the present study was to analyze the mycobiota, occurrence of mycotoxins (aflatoxins and cyclopiazonic acid), and production of phytoalexin (trans-resveratrol) in two peanut varieties (Runner IAC 886 and Caiapó) during plant growth in the field. Climatic factors (rainfall, relative humidity and temperature) and water activity were also evaluated. The results showed a predominance of Fusarium spp. in kernels and pods, followed by Penicillium spp. and Aspergillus flavus. Aflatoxins were detected in 20% and 10% of samples of the IAC 886 and Caiapó varieties, respectively. Analysis showed that 65% of kernel samples of the IAC 886 variety and 25% of the Caiapó variety were contaminated with cyclopiazonic acid. trans-Resveratrol was detected in 6.7% of kernel samples of the IAC 886 variety and in 20% of the Caiapó variety. However, trans-resveratrol was found in 73.3% of leaf samples in the two varieties studied. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. Source

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