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Kamalesh M.,Indiana University | Sharp T.G.,Indiana University | Tang X.C.,Hines Cooperative Studies Program Coordinating Center | Shunk K.,University of California at San Francisco | And 7 more authors.
Journal of the American College of Cardiology | Year: 2013

Objectives: This study sought to determine the optimal coronary revascularization strategy in patients with diabetes with severe coronary disease. Background: Although subgroup analyses from large trials, databases, and meta-analyses have found better survival for patients with diabetes with complex coronary artery disease when treated with surgery, a randomized trial comparing interventions exclusively with drug-eluting stents and surgery in patients with diabetes with high-risk coronary artery disease has not yet been reported. Methods: In a prospective, multicenter study, 198 eligible patients with diabetes with severe coronary artery disease were randomly assigned to either coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) (n = 97) or percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) with drug-eluting stents (n = 101) and followed for at least 2 years. The primary outcome measure was a composite of nonfatal myocardial infarction or death. Secondary outcome measures included all-cause mortality, cardiac mortality, nonfatal myocardial infarction, and stroke. Results: The study was stopped because of slow recruitment after enrolling only 25% of the intended sample size, leaving it severely underpowered for the primary composite endpoint of death plus nonfatal myocardial infarction (hazard ratio: 0.89; 95% confidence interval: 0.47 to 1.71). However, after a mean follow-up period of 2 years, all-cause mortality was 5.0% for CABG and 21% for PCI (hazard ratio: 0.30; 95% confidence interval: 0.11 to 0.80), while the risk for nonfatal myocardial infarction was 15% for CABG and 6.2% for PCI (hazard ratio: 3.32; 95% confidence interval: 1.07 to 10.30). Conclusions: This study was severely underpowered for its primary endpoint, and therefore no firm conclusions about the comparative effectiveness of CABG and PCI are possible. There were interesting differences in the components of the primary endpoint. However, the confidence intervals are very large, and the findings must be viewed as hypothesis generating only. (Coronary Artery Revascularization in Diabetes; NCT00326196) © 2013 American College of Cardiology Foundation. Source

Passman R.S.,Northwestern University | Bennett C.L.,University of South Carolina | Purpura J.M.,Northwestern University | Kapur R.,University of Illinois at Chicago | And 7 more authors.
American Journal of Medicine | Year: 2012

Although amiodarone is the most commonly prescribed anti-arrhythmic drug, its use is limited by serious toxicities, including optic neuropathy. Current reports of amiodarone-associated optic neuropathy identified from the Food and Drug Administration's Adverse Event Reporting System and published case reports were reviewed. A total of 296 reports were identified: 214 from the Adverse Event Reporting System, 59 from published case reports, and 23 from adverse events reports for patients enrolled in clinical trials. Mean duration of amiodarone therapy before vision loss was 9 months (range 1-84 months). Insidious onset of amiodarone-associated optic neuropathy (44%) was the most common presentation, and nearly one third were asymptomatic. Optic disk edema was present in 85% of cases. Following drug cessation, 58% had improved visual acuity, 21% were unchanged, and 21% had further decreased visual acuity. Legal blindness (<20/200) was noted in at least one eye in 20% of cases. Close ophthalmologic surveillance of patients during the tenure of amiodarone administration is warranted. © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. Source

Dolor R.J.,Center for Health Services Research in Primary Care | Dolor R.J.,Duke University | Dolor R.J.,Pratt Institute | Ruybalid R.L.,Research and Development Service 151 | And 12 more authors.
Journal of Thrombosis and Thrombolysis | Year: 2010

Prior studies suggest patient self-testing (PST) of prothrombin time (PT) can improve the quality of anticoagulation (AC) and reduce complications (e.g., bleeding and thromboembolic events). "The Home INR Study" (THINRS) compared AC management with frequent PST using a home monitoring device to high-quality AC management (HQACM) with clinic-based monitoring on major health outcomes. A key clinical and policy question is whether and which patients can successfully use such devices. We report the results of Part 1 of THINRS in which patients and caregivers were evaluated for their ability to perform PST. Study-eligible patients (n = 3643) were trained to use the home monitoring device and evaluated after 2-4 weeks for PST competency. Information about demographics, medical history, warfarin use, medications, plus measures of numeracy, literacy, cognition, dexterity, and satisfaction with AC were collected. Approximately 80% (2931 of 3643) of patients trained on PST demonstrated competency; of these, 8% (238) required caregiver assistance. Testers who were not competent to perform PST had higher numbers of practice attempts, higher cuvette wastage, and were less able to perform a fingerstick or obtain blood for the cuvette in a timely fashion. Factors associated with failure to pass PST training included increased age, previous stroke history, poor cognition, and poor manual dexterity. A majority of patients were able to perform PST. Successful home monitoring of PT with a PST device required adequate levels of cognition and manual dexterity. Training a caregiver modestly increased the proportion of patients who can perform PST. © 2010 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC. Source

Rosenheck R.A.,Northeast Program Evaluation Center | Rosenheck R.A.,Yale University | Krystal J.H.,Northeast Program Evaluation Center | Krystal J.H.,Yale University | And 9 more authors.
Clinical Trials | Year: 2011

Background: The introduction of antipsychotic medication has been a major advance in the treatment of schizophrenia and allows millions of people to live outside of institutions. It is generally believed that long-acting intramuscular antipsychotic medication is the most effective approach to increasing medication adherence and thereby reduce relapse in high-risk patients with schizophrenia, but the data are scant. Purpose: To report the design of a study to assess the effect of long-acting injectable risperidone in unstable patients and under more realistic conditions than previously studied and to evaluate the effect of this medication on psychiatric inpatient hospitalization, schizophrenia symptoms, quality of life, medication adherence, side effects, and health care costs. Methods: The trial was an open randomized clinical comparative effectiveness trial in patients with schizophrenia or schizo-affective disorders in which parenteral risperidone was compared to an oral antipsychotic regimen selected by each control patient's psychiatrist. Participants had unstable psychiatric disease defined by recent hospitalization or exhibition of unusual need for psychiatric services. The primary endpoint was hospitalization for psychiatric indications; the secondary endpoint was psychiatric symptoms. Results: Overall, 382 patients were randomized. Determination of a persons' competency to understand the elements of informed consent was addressed. The use of a closed-circuit TV interview for psychosocial measures provided an economical, high quality, reliable means of collecting data. A unique method for insuring that usual care was optimal was incorporated in the follow-up of all subjects. Limitations: Patients with schizophrenia or schizo-affective disorders and with the common co-morbid illnesses seen in the VA are a challenging group of subjects to study in long-term trials. Some techniques unique in the VA and found useful may not be generalizable or applicable in other research or treatment settings. Conclusions: The trial tested a new antipsychotic medication early in its adoption in the Veterans Health Administration. The VA has a unique electronic medical record and database which can be used to identify the endpoint, that is, first hospitalization due to a psychiatric problem, with complete ascertainment. Several methodologic solutions addressed competency to understand elements of consent, the costs and reliability of collecting interview data gathering, and insuring usual care. © The Author(s), 2011. Source

Rosenheck R.A.,Research Education and Clinical Center | Rosenheck R.A.,Yale University | Krystal J.H.,Research Education and Clinical Center | Krystal J.H.,Yale University | And 7 more authors.
New England Journal of Medicine | Year: 2011

BACKGROUND: Long-acting injectable risperidone, a second-generation antipsychotic agent, may improve adherence to treatment and outcomes in schizophrenia, but it has not been tested in a long-term randomized trial involving patients with unstable disease. METHODS: We randomly assigned patients in the Veterans Affairs (VA) system who had schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder and who had been hospitalized within the previous 2 years or were at imminent risk for hospitalization to 25 to 50 mg of long-acting injectable risperidone every two weeks or to a psychiatrist's choice of an oral antipsychotic. All patients were followed for up to 2 years. The primary end point was hospitalization in a VA or non-VA psychiatric hospital. Symptoms, quality of life, and functioning were assessed in blinded videoconference interviews. RESULTS: Of 369 participants, 40% were hospitalized at randomization, 55% were hospitalized within the previous 2 years, and 5% were at risk for hospitalization. The rate of hospitalization after randomization was not significantly lower among patients who received long-acting injectable risperidone than among those who received oral antipsychotics (39% after 10.8 months vs. 45% after 11.3 months; hazard ratio, 0.87; 95% confidence interval, 0.63 to 1.20). Psychiatric symptoms, quality of life, scores on the Personal and Social Performance scale of global functioning, and neurologic side effects were not significantly improved with long-acting injectable risperidone as compared with control treatments. Patients who received long-acting injectable risperidone reported more adverse events at the injection site and more extrapyramidal symptoms. CONCLUSIONS: Long-acting injectable risperidone was not superior to a psychiatrist's choice of oral treatment in patients with schizophrenia and schizoaffective disorder who were hospitalized or at high risk for hospitalization, and it was associated with more local injection-site and extrapyramidal adverse effects. (Supported by the VA Cooperative Studies Program and Ortho-McNeil Janssen Scientific Affairs; ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT00132314.) Copyright © 2011 Massachusetts Medical Society. Source

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