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Bazin E.,British Petroleum | Huet S.,British Petroleum | Jarry G.,British Petroleum | Hegarat L.L.,British Petroleum | And 4 more authors.
Environmental Toxicology | Year: 2012

Cylindrospermopsin (CYN), a cyanobacterial hepatotoxin mainly produced by Cylindrospermopsis raciborskii, has been involved in human intoxications and livestock deaths. The widespread occurrence of CYN in the water supplies lead us to investigate its genotoxicity to assess potential chronic effects. This study reports evaluation of CYN-induced in vivo DNA damage in mice using alkaline comet assay (ACA) and micronucleus assay (MNA) concomittantly. ACA measures DNA breakage from single and double strand breaks as well as alkali labile sites. Conversely, MNA detects chromosome damage events such as chromosomal breakage and numeric alterations. Male Swiss mice were treated with CYN concentrations of 50, 100, and 200 μg/kg by a single intraperitoneal (ip) injection or with 1, 2, and 4 mg/kg by gavage. Methyl methane sulfonate (MMS) was used as positive control at 80 mg/kg. Twenty-four hours after treatment, samples of liver, blood, bone marrow, kidney, intestine, and colon were taken to perform ACA, the bone marrow and the colon were also used for MNA. Parameters used to quantify DNA damage were % Tail DNA for ACA and both micronucleated immature erythrocytes and epithelial colon cells for MNA. DNA breaks and chromosome damage were significantly increased by MMS in all the organs evaluated. Significant DNA damage was detected within the colon by ACA after ip injection of 100 and 200 μg/kg CYN (P < 0.01). DNA damage was also detected in colon samples after 4 mg/kg oral administration of CYN and in bone marrow after 1 and 2 mg/kg of orally administered CYN. Histological examination showed foci of cell death within the liver and the kidney from mice that received the two highest doses of CYN by either route of administration. © 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

Bazin E.,Agence Francaise de Securite Sanitaire des Aliments | Mourot A.,Agence Francaise de Securite Sanitaire des Aliments | Humpage A.R.,Cooperative Research Center for Water Quality and Treatment | Fessard V.,Agence Francaise de Securite Sanitaire des Aliments
Environmental and Molecular Mutagenesis | Year: 2010

Cylindrospermopsin (CYN), a cyanotoxin produced by certain freshwater cyanobacteria, causes human intoxications and animal mortalities. CYN is a potent inhibitor of protein- and glutathione-synthesis. Preliminary evidence for in vivo tumor initiation has been found in mice but the mechanism remains unclear. Several in vitro and in vivo studies demonstrate that CYN is genotoxic and requires metabolic activation. In the present study, the genotoxicity of CYN was assessed in human hepatocyte and enterocyte cell lines, which are models for CYN target organs. The cytokinesis-block micronucleus assay was conducted on liver-derived HepaRG cells and colon-derived Caco-2 cells. Each cell-type was exposed to CYN in both the differentiated and the undifferentiated states, and both with and without the cytochrome P450 inhibitor, ketoconazole, to determine the involvement of metabolism in CYN genotoxicity. CYN increased the frequency of micronuclei in binucleated cells (MNBNC) in both Caco-2 and HepaRG cells. Moreover, ketoconazole reduced both the genotoxicity and cytotoxicity caused by CYN. Our results confirm the involvement of metabolic activation of CYN in mediating its toxicity and suggest that CYN is progenotoxic. © 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

Huston R.,Griffith University | Huston R.,Cooperative Research Center for Water Quality and Treatment | Huston R.,University of Queensland | Chan Y.C.,Griffith University | And 4 more authors.
Water Research | Year: 2012

Due to prolonged droughts in recent years, the use of rainwater tanks in urban areas has increased in Australia. In order to apportion sources of contribution to heavy metal and ionic contaminants in rainwater tanks in Brisbane, a subtropical urban area in Australia, monthly tank water samples (24 sites, 31 tanks) and concurrent bulk deposition samples (18 sites) were collected during mainly April 2007-March 2008. The samples were analysed for acid-soluble metals, soluble anions, total inorganic carbon and total organic carbon, and characteristics such as total solid and pH. The Positive Matrix Factorisation model, EPA PMF 3.0, was used to apportion sources of contribution to the contaminants. Four source factors were identified for the bulk deposition samples, including 'crustal matter/sea salt', 'car exhausts/road side dust', 'industrial dust' and 'aged sea salt/secondary aerosols'. For the tank water samples, apart from these atmospheric deposition related factors which contributed in total to 65% of the total contaminant concentration on average, another six rainwater collection system related factors were identified, including 'plumbing', 'building material', 'galvanizing', 'roofing', 'steel' and 'lead flashing/paint' (contributing in total to 35% of the total concentration on average). The Australian Drinking Water Guideline for lead was exceeded in 15% of the tank water samples. The collection system related factors, in particular the 'lead flashing/paint' factor, contributed to 79% of the lead in the tank water samples on average. The concentration of lead in tank water was found to vary with various environmental and collection system factors, in particular the presence of lead flashing on the roof. The results also indicated the important role of sludge dynamics inside the tank on the quality of tank water. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd.

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