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Ameringer T.,CSIRO | Ameringer T.,Cooperative Research Center for Polymers | Ameringer T.,Swinburne University of Technology | Ercole F.,Monash University | And 20 more authors.
Biointerphases | Year: 2013

Background: The ability to present signalling molecules within a low fouling 3D environment that mimics the extracellular matrix is an important goal for a range of biomedical applications, both in vitro and in vivo. Cell responses can be triggered by non-specific protein interactions occurring on the surface of a biomaterial, which is an undesirable process when studying specific receptor-ligand interactions. It is therefore useful to present specific ligands of interest to cell surface receptors in a 3D environment that minimizes non-specific interactions with biomolecules, such as proteins. Method: In this study, surface-initiated atom transfer radical polymerization (SI-ATRP) of poly(ethylene glycol)-based monomers was carried out from the surface of electrospun fibers composed of a styrene/vinylbenzyl chloride copolymer. Surface initiated radical addition-fragmentation chain transfer (SI-RAFT) polymerisation was also carried out to generate bottle brush copolymer coatings consisting of poly(acrylic acid) and poly(acrylamide). These were grown from surface trithiocarbonate groups generated from the chloromethyl styrene moieties existing in the original synthesised polymer. XPS was used to characterise the surface composition of the fibers after grafting and after coupling with fluorine functional XPS labels. Results: Bottle brush type coatings were able to be produced by ATRP which consisted of poly(ethylene glycol) methacrylate and a terminal alkyne-functionalised monomer. The ATRP coatings showed reduced non-specific protein adsorption, as a result of effective PEG incorporation and pendant alkynes groups existing as part of the brushes allowed for further conjugation of via azide-alkyne Huisgen 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition. In the case of RAFT, carboxylic acid moieties were effectively coupled to an amine label via amide bond formation. In each case XPS analysis demonstrated that covalent immobilisation had effectively taken place. Conclusion: Overall, the studies presented an effective platform for the preparation of 3D scaffolds which contain effective conjugation sites for attachment of specific bioactive signals of interest, as well as actively reducing nonspecific protein interactions. © 2013 Ameringer et al.

Ercole F.,Monash University | Rodda A.E.,Monash University | Rodda A.E.,CSIRO | Rodda A.E.,Cooperative Research Center for Polymers | And 5 more authors.
Polymer Chemistry | Year: 2014

The controlled ring-opening polymerisation (ROP) of an ε-caprolactone derivative that contains an ATRP initiator pendant to the ring, γ-(2-bromo-2-methyl propionyl)-ε-caprolactone (γ-BMPCL), and its copolymerisation with ε-caprolactone (CL) is reported. Functional PCL copolymers that contained pendant ATRP initiators were obtained with higher than previously reported molecular weights using diphenyl phosphate (DPP) as the catalyst at room temperature. Surface-initiated ATRP grafting of oligo(ethylene glycol) methacrylate was successfully carried out on the surface of two dimensional (2D) substrates comprising thin films of a functional PCL copolymer. © 2014 the Partner Organisations.

Ameringer T.,CSIRO | Ameringer T.,Cooperative Research Center for Polymers | Fransen P.,CSIRO | Bean P.,CSIRO | And 9 more authors.
Journal of Biomedical Materials Research - Part A | Year: 2012

Control over cell-material surface interactions is the key to many new and improved biomedical devices. It can only be achieved if interactions that are mediated by nonspecifically adsorbed serum proteins are minimized and if cells instead respond to specific ligand molecules presented on the surface. Here, we present a simple yet effective surface modification method that allows for the covalent coupling and presentation of specific biological signals on coatings which have significantly reduced nonspecific biointerfacial interactions. To achieve this we synthesized bottle brush type copolymers consisting of poly(ethylene glycol) methyl ether methacrylate and (meth)acrylates providing activated NHS ester groups as well as different spacer lengths between the NHS groups and the polymer backbone. Copolymers containing different molar ratios of these monomers were grafted to amine functionalized polystyrene cell culture substrates, followed by the covalent immobilization of the cyclic peptides cRGDfK and cRADfK using residual NHS groups. Polymers were characterized by GPC and NMR and surface modification steps were analyzed using XPS. The cellular response was evaluated using HeLa cell attachment experiments. The results showed strong correlations between the effectiveness of the control over biointerfacial interactions and the polymer architecture. They also demonstrate that optimized fully synthetic copolymer coatings, which can be applied to a wide range of substrate materials, provide excellent control over biointerfacial interactions. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

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