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Singh S.K.,CSIRO | Singh S.K.,Charles Sturt University | Singh S.K.,Cooperative Research Center for Plant Biosecurity | Ash G.J.,Charles Sturt University | Hodda M.,CSIRO
Biological Invasions | Year: 2014

Predicting which species will become invasive in each country or region before they arrive is necessary to devise and implement measures for minimising the costs of biological invasions. Metaphorically, this is keeping one step ahead of invasive species. A structured and systematic approach for screening large numbers of species and identifying those likely to become invasive is proposed in this paper. The Pest Screening and Targeting (PeST) framework integrates heterogeneous information and data on species biogeography, biotic and abiotic factors to first determine a preliminary risk index, then uses this index to identify species for a second, more detailed, risk evaluation process to provide a final ranking. Using the PeST framework, 97 species of plant-parasitic nematodes were evaluated for their biosecurity risks to Australia. The species identified as greatest risks included both previously unrecognised and currently-recognised species. The former included Heterodera zeae, Meloidogyne graminicola, M. enterolobii, M. chitwoodi and Scutellonema bradys, while the latter included Bursaphelenchus xylophilus, Ditylenchus destructor, Globodera pallida, Heterodera glycines and H. filipjevi. Of the ten criteria used in the PeST framework, emerging pest status, pathogenicity, host range and species biogeography most strongly influenced overall risk. The PeST framework also identified species where research to fill in critical knowledge gaps will be most beneficial (e.g. Globodera tabacum, Heterodera cajani, H. filipjevi, Meloidogyne ethiopica, Pratylenchus fallax and P. sudanensis). Where data were available, the information and associated metadata gathered for the PeST framework can be used to guide biosecurity decision making; determine species which require pre border certification and target sampling at the borders. © 2014 Springer International Publishing Switzerland.


Singh S.K.,CSIRO | Singh S.K.,Charles Sturt University | Singh S.K.,Cooperative Research Center for Plant Biosecurity | Ash G.J.,Charles Sturt University | Hodda M.,CSIRO
Biological Invasions | Year: 2015

Predicting which species will become invasive in each country or region before they arrive is necessary to devise and implement measures for minimising the costs of biological invasions. Metaphorically, this is keeping one step ahead of invasive species. A structured and systematic approach for screening large numbers of species and identifying those likely to become invasive is proposed in this paper. The Pest Screening and Targeting (PeST) framework integrates heterogeneous information and data on species biogeography, biotic and abiotic factors to first determine a preliminary risk index, then uses this index to identify species for a second, more detailed, risk evaluation process to provide a final ranking. Using the PeST framework, 97 species of plant-parasitic nematodes were evaluated for their biosecurity risks to Australia. The species identified as greatest risks included both previously unrecognised and currently-recognised species. The former included Heterodera zeae, Meloidogyne graminicola, M. enterolobii, M. chitwoodi and Scutellonema bradys, while the latter included Bursaphelenchus xylophilus, Ditylenchus destructor, Globodera pallida, Heterodera glycines and H. filipjevi. Of the ten criteria used in the PeST framework, emerging pest status, pathogenicity, host range and species biogeography most strongly influenced overall risk. The PeST framework also identified species where research to fill in critical knowledge gaps will be most beneficial (e.g. Globodera tabacum, Heterodera cajani, H. filipjevi, Meloidogyne ethiopica, Pratylenchus fallax and P. sudanensis). Where data were available, the information and associated metadata gathered for the PeST framework can be used to guide biosecurity decision making; determine species which require pre border certification and target sampling at the borders. © 2014, Springer International Publishing Switzerland.


Singh S.K.,CSIRO | Singh S.K.,Charles Sturt University | Singh S.K.,Cooperative Research Center for Plant Biosecurity | Paini D.R.,CSIRO | And 3 more authors.
Biological Invasions | Year: 2014

The biosecurity risks from many plant-parasitic nematode (PPN) species are poorly known and remain a major challenge for identifying potentially invasive species. A self organising map (SOM) was used to prioritise biosecurity risks from PPN to the whole of continental Australia as well as each of the states and the Northern Territory separately. The SOM used the recorded worldwide distributions of 250 systematically selected species from 43 genera, and identified 18 different countries spanning Asia, Africa, North and Central America, Europe and the Pacific with very similar PPN assemblages to Australia as a whole. Many of the species in these countries are not recorded in Australia, and therefore pose a biosecurity risk. Analysed separately, the states and territories were identified as forming five separate clusters, each with a different region of the world, and with different characteristic PPN. Many of the PPN found in the regions clustered with an Australian state have not been recorded from anywhere in Australia, and others have very restricted distributions within Australia, thus posing different biosecurity risks. The SOM analysis ranked the risks of the different PPN based on likelihoods of establishment. The rankings confirmed the risks from frequently quarantined PPN, but more importantly identified species, which upon further investigation could be new threats. This method can be used to identify previously overlooked species for more detailed risk assessments. © 2013 Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht.


Kriticos D.J.,CSIRO | Kriticos D.J.,Charles Sturt University | Kriticos D.J.,Cooperative Research Center for Plant Biosecurity | Le Maitre D.C.,South African Council for Scientific and Industrial Research | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Biogeography | Year: 2013

A recent review by Dormann et al. (2012, Journal of Biogeography, 39, 2119-2131) has proposed that methods for the modelling of species distributions be considered as a continuum. We disagree with this thesis, and contend that attempting to present the diverse range of methods as a continuum is unhelpful and ultimately not convincing. It adds to the confusion about the strengths and weaknesses of the diversity of available modelling methods, what exactly it is that they model, and the most appropriate applications. We highlight variation within and between modelling methods that is obscured by the continuum framework and propose that context of application and clarity of method are critical elements for future discourse on the topic. © 2013 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.


Cunningham J.P.,Biosciences Research | Cunningham J.P.,Queensland University of Technology | Carlsson M.A.,University of Stockholm | Villa T.F.,Queensland University of Technology | And 3 more authors.
Journal of Chemical Ecology | Year: 2016

Frugivorous tephritid fruit flies have lineages with high levels of host generalism. These insects use olfaction to locate fruits, but how they are able to recognize the odors of so many different host species is poorly understood. We used a series of behavioral experiments to investigate the role of fruit ripening volatiles as host cues in the Queensland fruit fly, Bactrocera tryoni (Froggatt), a polyphagous pest in Australia. Odors of mature guava (Psidium guajava) attracted female and male flies more strongly than three other ripening stages and guava pulp. We analyzed volatiles from guava odor and selected eleven compounds, all of which elicited an electrophysiological response in the antenna of female flies. Three of these, ethyl acetate, ethyl butyrate, and ethyl propionate, were released at the highest rates from the most attractive ripening stage. In behavioral trials, these three esters were not attractive individually, whereas a combination was necessary and sufficient in attracting female flies. The three-component blend was as attractive as the entire 11-component blend, which without these key volatiles was not attractive. Moreover, injecting low ranking hosts (squash and cucumber) with the three volatiles increased attraction in ovipositing female flies. These fruit flies are classed as generalists, but like many polyphagous insects they could be regarded as resource specialists, preferring specific plant reproductive stages with predictable odor cues. Exploring olfaction from this perspective could improve our understanding of host choice in polyphagous insects, and the selection of volatiles to be used as attractants in insect pest management. © 2016 Springer Science+Business Media New York


Mackie A.E.,Cooperative Research Center for Plant Biosecurity | Mackie A.E.,University of Western Australia | Mackie A.E.,Bentley Delivery Center | Rodoni B.C.,Cooperative Research Center for Plant Biosecurity | And 8 more authors.
European Journal of Plant Pathology | Year: 2016

During 2007–2012, Potato spindle tuber viroid (PSTVd) was detected in volunteer cultivated, wild and native plants during studies to determine whether Pospiviroids occur within the isolated, sub-tropical, Gascoyne Horticultural District (GHD) in central coastal Western Australia (WA). PSTVd was detected infecting volunteer crop plants of tomato, pepper and chilli; introduced weed species Solanum nigrum (blackberry nightshade), Datura leichhardtii (thornapple) and Nicandra physalodes (apple-of-Peru) (Solanaceae), and Conyza bonariensis (flaxleaf fleabane) (Asteraceae); and Australian native species Atriplex semilunaris (annual saltbush), Rhagodia eremaea (thorny saltbush) (Chenopodiaceae), and Streptoglossa sp. (Asteraceae). PSTVd was also detected infecting Physalis angulata (wild gooseberry) in the Ord River Irrigation Area (ORIA), Kimberley region in north-west WA. Comparison of sequences from the three complete and 18 partial RNA nucleotide sequences obtained from 20 GHD and one ORIA isolates with those of published sequences showed that their highest nucleotide sequence identities were to isolate AY962324 belonging to the Chittering strain from south-west WA. On phylogenetic analysis, the three completely sequenced GHD PSTVd isolates grouped within a cluster of isolates from tomato and P. peruviana. These results show that a naturally occurring PSTVd inoculum reservoir is present in the GHD. This reservoir explains the occurrence of repeated PSTVd infections in different years in field crops of tomato, pepper and chilli growing in its market gardens and small farms. These findings have implications concerning PSTVd spread in intensive solanaceous crop field production systems in other subtropical regions of the world. © 2016 Koninklijke Nederlandse Planteziektenkundige Vereniging


Vo J.N.,Cooperative Research Center for Plant Biosecurity | Vo J.N.,University of Queensland | Vo J.N.,Macquarie University | Mahfuz N.N.,University of Queensland | And 3 more authors.
European Journal of Plant Pathology | Year: 2015

The purification of viruses from bananas is a complex and laborious process due to the large quantities of polysaccharides and secondary metabolites in the plant tissue. The banana streak viruses (BSVs) are generally difficult to purify to a level that allows generation of high quality antisera. This study presents an improved method of purification of Banana streak MY virus (BSMYV), which allowed us to generate highly specific chicken and rabbit antisera and to detect the capsid proteins for the first time. Finally, we demonstrate further enrichment of BSMYV by isoelectric focusing. © 2015 Koninklijke Nederlandse Planteziektenkundige Vereniging


Singh S.K.,CSIRO | Singh S.K.,Graham Center for Agricultural Innovation | Singh S.K.,Cooperative Research Center for Plant Biosecurity | Hodda M.,CSIRO | And 2 more authors.
Annals of Applied Biology | Year: 2013

Few species of plant-parasitic nematodes (PPN) are currently recognised as invasive but this is largely because of insufficient investigation and recognition. We compared the characteristics of PPN with those of invasive species generally, using the propagule pressure, abiotic and biotic factors (PAB) framework. Most PPN had many of the characteristics of invasive species and hence have the potential to become invasive. The most common characteristics included: adaptations for human mediated dispersal; multiple entry pathways; microscopic size; large number of propagules; high fecundity; many or cosmopolitan hosts; short lifecycle; ability to survive harsh or unfavourable conditions; ability to vary sex ratios; and ability to overcome host plant resistance. Information is lacking for many characteristics of many species and their impacts remain unquantified, which leaves some important unanswered questions and challenges for assessing PPN as invasive species. However many economically important PPN species have not been recognised as invasive, even when most of the known characteristics and data suggests they should be. © 2013 Association of Applied Biologists.


Cui F.,Kansas State University | Cui F.,CAS Institute of Zoology | Cui F.,Cooperative Research Center for Plant Biosecurity | Michael Smith C.,Kansas State University | And 4 more authors.
Insect Science | Year: 2012

The Russian wheat aphid (RWA), Diuraphis noxia (Mordvilko) (Homoptera: Aphididae), is a major pest of small grains. As with plant-feeding aphids in general, the interaction between RWA and host plants is governed, on the insect side, by proteins and enzymes in saliva. In this work, we examined sequence variations in transcripts encoding proteins and enzymes of RWA salivary glands. We conducted reverse transcription - polymerase chain reaction in RWA biotypes 1 and 2 using primers derived from pea aphid orthologs, and cloned regions of 17 putative salivary gland transcripts. For four of the transcripts, we observed no difference in sequences between the two biotypes. For the other 13 transcripts, for example, the transcripts encoding sucrase, trehalase and protein C002, large amount of variations, both within each biotype and between the two biotypes, were observed. Usually the two biotypes shared only one variant, which was typically the most common variant in both biotypes. Most of the transcripts had more non-synonymous than synonymous codon changes among their variants. Our results offer possible molecular markers for distinguishing the two biotypes and insights into their evolution. © 2012 The Authors Insect Science © 2012 Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences.

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