Cooperative Research Center for National Plant Biosecurity

Bruce, Australia

Cooperative Research Center for National Plant Biosecurity

Bruce, Australia
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Glatz R.,South Australian Research And Development Institute | Glatz R.,Cooperative Research Center for National Plant Biosecurity | Bailey-Hill K.,South Australian Research And Development Institute | Bailey-Hill K.,Cooperative Research Center for National Plant Biosecurity
Progress in Neurobiology | Year: 2011

The way in which organisms detect specific volatile compounds within their environment, and the associated neural processing which produces perception and subsequent behavioural responses, have been of interest to scientists for decades. Initially, most olfaction research was conducted using electrophysiological techniques on whole animals. However, the discovery of genes encoding the family of human olfactory receptors (ORs) paved the way for the development of a range of cellular assays, primarily used to deorphan ORs from mammals and insects. These assays have greatly advanced our knowledge of the molecular basis of olfaction, however, while there is currently good agreement on vertebrate and nematode olfactory signalling cascades, debate still surrounds the signalling mechanisms in insects. The inherent specificity and sensitivity of ORs makes them prime candidates as biological detectors of volatile ligands within biosensor devices, which have many potential applications. In the previous decade, researchers have investigated various technologies for transducing OR:ligand interactions into a readable format and thereby produce an olfactory biosensor (or bioelectronic nose) that maintains the discriminating power of the ORs in vivo. Here we review and compare the molecular mechanisms of olfaction in vertebrates and invertebrates, and also summarise the assay technologies utilising sub-tissue level sensing elements (cells and cell extracts), which have been applied to OR deorphanisation and biosensor research. Although there are currently no commercial, "field-ready" olfactory biosensors of the kind discussed here, there have been several technological proof-of-concept studies suggesting that we will see their emergence within the next decade. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd.

De Villiers M.,Stellenbosch University | Hattingh V.,Stellenbosch University | Kriticos D.J.,CSIRO | Kriticos D.J.,Cooperative Research Center for National Plant Biosecurity
Bulletin of Entomological Research | Year: 2013

Abstract Despite the potential for phenological and abundance data to improve the reliability of species niche models, they are seldom used. The aim of this study was to combine information on the distribution, relative abundance and seasonal phenology of Natal fruit fly, Ceratitis rosa Karsch (Diptera: Tephritidae), in South Africa to model its potential global distribution. Bucket traps, baited with Biolure, were used to trap C. rosa in different climatic regions of South Africa over a two-year period. A CLIMEX niche model of the potential global distribution of C. rosa was fitted using the collected trapping data and other distribution records from South Africa. Independent distribution records for elsewhere in Africa were reserved for model validation. The CLIMEX model results conformed well to the South African trapping data, including information on relative abundance and seasonal phenology, as well as to the pattern of presence records of the species elsewhere in Africa. The model suggests that under recent historical conditions a large part of South America, Central America, Mexico and southern USA may be climatically suitable for establishment of C. rosa. In Europe, climatically suitable habitat is restricted to coastal regions of the Mediterranean, in Asia, mostly to the southern and south eastern countries, and in Australia mostly to the wetter south and east. The independent cross-validation provided by South African relative abundance and seasonal phenology data, central African distribution data and relevant species specific biological information provides greater confidence in the modelled potential distribution of C. rosa. Copyright © Cambridge University Press 2012.

Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP-FP | Phase: KBBE-2007-1-2-03 | Award Amount: 4.13M | Year: 2008

PRATIQUE (Enhancements of Pest Risk Analysis Techniques) will carry out all the key work listed in the call and address the major challenges for pest risk analysis (PRA) in Europe. This will be achieved through three principal objectives: to assemble the datasets required to construct effective PRAs valid for the whole of the EU, to conduct multi-disciplinary research that enhances the techniques used in PRA and to ensure that the PRA decision support scheme meets its purpose, is efficient and user-friendly. Pest risk analysts, phytosanitary experts, invasive alien species specialists, ecologists, economists and risk modellers from 13 leading institutes in the EU, one from Australia and one from New Zealand will produce the first structured inventory of PRA datasets for the EU and undertake targeted research to improve existing procedures and develop new methods for (a) the assessment of economic, environmental and social impacts, (b) summarising risk in effective, harmonised ways that take account of uncertainty, (c) mapping endangered areas (d) pathway risk analysis and systems approaches and (e) guiding actions during emergencies caused by outbreaks of harmful pests. The results will be tested with a representative range of the major pests and invasive alien species affecting the cultivated and uncultivated habitats of the EU and will be independently validated by phytosanitary experts. The deliverables will be provided as protocols, decision support systems and computer programs with examples of best practice made available to pest risk analysts through modules and direct links to the PRA scheme. The PRA scheme will be web-enabled providing (i) new users with context-sensitive guidance, (ii) experts with a more efficient and user-friendly process and greatly enhanced access to key datasets and analytical tools, (iii) policy makers with an improved and robust scientific basis for managing risks and (iv) stakeholders with a transparent presentation of the risks.

Nayak M.K.,Australian Department of Primary Industries and Fisheries | Nayak M.K.,Cooperative Research Center for National Plant Biosecurity
Pest Management Science | Year: 2010

BACKGROUND: Piperonyl butoxide (PB)-synergised natural pyrethrins (pyrethrin:PB ratio 1: 4) were evaluated both as a grain protectant and a disinfestant against four Liposcelidid psocids: Liposcelis bostrychophila Badonnel, L. entomophila (Enderlein), L. decolor (Pearman) and L. paeta Pearman. These are key storage pests in Australia that are difficult to control with the registered grain protectants and are increasingly being reported as pests of stored products in other countries. Firstly, mortality and reproduction of adults were determined in wheat freshly treated at 0.0, 0.75, 1.5, 3 and 6 mg kg-1 of pyrethrins + PB (1: 4) at 30 ± 1°C and 70 ± 2% RH. Next, wheat treated at 0.0, 1.5, 3 and 6 mg kg-1 of pyrethrins + PB (1: 4) was stored at 30 ± 1 °C and 70 ± 2% RH and mortality and reproduction of psocids were assessed after 0, 1.5, 3 and 4.5 months of storage. Finally, the potential of synergised pyrethrins as a disinfestant was assessed by establishing time to endpoint mortality for adult psocids exposed to wheat treated at 3 and 6 mg kg-1 of synergised pyrethrins after 0, 3, 6, 9 and 12 h of exposure. RESULTS: Synergised pyrethrins at 6 mg kg-1 provided 3 months of protection against all four Liposcelis spp., and at this rate complete adult mortality of these psocids can be achieved within 6 h of exposure. CONCLUSION: Piperonyl butoxide-synergised pyrethrins have excellent potential both as a grain protectant and as a disinfestant against Liposcelidid psocids. © State of Queensland, Department of Employment, Economic Development and Innovation, 2010. Published by John Wiley and Sons, Ltd.

Jackson S.L.,Cooperative Research Center for National Plant Biosecurity | Jackson S.L.,Murdoch University | Bayliss K.L.,Cooperative Research Center for National Plant Biosecurity | Bayliss K.L.,Murdoch University
Plant Pathology | Year: 2011

Spore traps are widely used in plant pathology, but less so in plant biosecurity. Potentially they can be used to determine the geographical extent of a plant pathogen incursion, to track the active spread of an incursion, and to declare area freedom following an eradication program. This review discusses the abilities and constraints of spore traps in the context of plant biosecurity, and highlights the problems that need to be overcome before spore traps can be routinely used for detection and eradication of plant pathogen incursions. To meet biosecurity requirements, spore traps must be efficient, mechanically reliable and any spores captured must be rapidly identified and quantified. At present, there is significant variation in types of spore traps, and in the methods used to capture and identify spores. Standard spore traps are generally inefficient for surveillance because they do not sample large volumes of air or capture samples that are representative of entire crop growing regions. If spore traps are to become routinely used for plant biosecurity purposes, improved designs, novel applications and standard operating protocols must be developed. A better understanding of background atmospheric data and the spatial and temporal characteristics of pathogen spores will be required to design trapping systems and protocols so that incursions can be readily detected, and presence/absence data can be confidently reported. © 2011 The Authors. Plant Pathology © 2011 BSPP.

Renton M.,University of Western Australia | Renton M.,Murdoch University | Renton M.,CSIRO | Renton M.,Cooperative Research Center for National Plant Biosecurity | And 2 more authors.
Global Change Biology | Year: 2012

In the next century, global climate change is predicted to have large influences on species' distributions. Much of the research in this area has focused on predicting the areas where conditions will be suitable for the species in future, and thus the potential distribution of the species. However, it is equally important to predict the relative abilities of species to migrate into new suitable areas as conditions shift, while accounting for dynamic processes, such as dispersal, maturation, mortality, and reproduction, as well as landscape characteristics, such as level of habitat fragmentation and connectivity. In this study, we developed a spatially explicit individual-based model that addresses these factors. As a motivating case study, we based aspects of the model on southwest Australia, a global biodiversity hotspot, but stress that the results obtained are generalizable beyond this region. Using the model, we enhanced current understanding of climate change impacts by investigating how and to what extent the functional traits of plant species affect their ability to move with climate change across landscapes with various levels of fragmentation. We also tested the efficacy of strategic restoration, such as planting corridors to increase connectivity among fragments. We found that even if the landscape is fully intact, only an average of 34.2% of all simulated functional groups had a good chance of successfully tracking climate change. However, our study highlights the power of strategic restoration as a tool for increasing species persistence. Corridors linking fragments increased species persistence rates by up to 24%. The lowest persistence rates were found for trees, a functional group with high dispersal but also long generation times. Our results indicate that for trees intervention techniques, such as assisted migration might be required to prevent species losses. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

Paini D.R.,Cooperative Research Center for National Plant Biosecurity | Paini D.R.,CSIRO | Yemshanov D.,Natural Resources Canada
PLoS ONE | Year: 2012

Species can sometimes spread significant distances beyond their natural dispersal ability by anthropogenic means. International shipping routes and the transport of shipping containers, in particular are a commonly recognised pathway for the introduction of invasive species. Species can gain access to a shipping container and remain inside, hidden and undetected for long periods. Currently, government biosecurity agencies charged with intercepting and removing these invasive species when they arrive to a county's border only assess the most immediate point of loading in evaluating a shipping container's risk profile. However, an invasive species could have infested a container previous to this point and travelled undetected before arriving at the border. To assess arrival risk for an invasive species requires analysing the international shipping network in order to identify the most likely source countries and the domestic ports of entry where the species is likely to arrive. We analysed an international shipping network and generated pathway simulations using a first-order Markov chain model to identify possible source ports and countries for the arrival of Khapra beetle (Trogoderma granarium) to Australia. We found Kaohsiung (Taiwan) and Busan (Republic of Korea) to be the most likely sources for Khapra beetle arrival, while the port of Melbourne was the most likely point of entry to Australia. Sensitivity analysis revealed significant stability in the rankings of foreign and Australian ports. This methodology provides a reliable modelling tool to identify and rank possible sources for an invasive species that could arrive at some time in the future. Such model outputs can be used by biosecurity agencies concerned with inspecting incoming shipping containers and wishing to optimise their inspection protocols. © 2012 Paini, Yemshanov.

Kriticos D.J.,Scion Research | Kriticos D.J.,CSIRO | Kriticos D.J.,Cooperative Research Center for National Plant Biosecurity
Biological Invasions | Year: 2012

Managing the threats posed by invasive alien species currently may involve a mixture of species-specific and pathway-specific policy and operational measures aimed at achieving a socially acceptable level of protection. In order to decide how to allocate scarce biosecurity resources in a manner that avoids erecting technical barriers to trade, it is necessary to undertake risk assessments for individual pests or commodity pathways. Whilst there are popular climatic niche tools available to project future pest risk in terms of a species' potential distribution, the international legal frameworks as yet have no explicit means of including future risk considerations arising from projected climate changes. Nor are there any tested and accepted tools for projecting shifts in geographic pest risk, or systematically identifying future pest risks. I use New Zealand as a case study to demonstrate a method for identifying generic geographic pest risk to a jurisdiction under historical and future climate scenarios. Under future climates, the global area from which threatening pests could originate is set to increase. Pests from some regions that presently require warmer conditions than can be found in New Zealand are likely to become a future threat. These pests will probably originate from regions presently experiencing a sub-tropical climate. As climates warm, regions that have previously been too cool to pose a pest threat will start posing a threat, particularly from rapidly dispersing ruderal species and other generalists. Taking all of the different types of threats into account, the largest increase in risk area for New Zealand appears to be in northern Europe, North America and Asia. This technique can be used to alert biosecurity pathway managers about the shifting direction from which climatically suitable biological invaders may originate, and can also be used to generate pests lists for species that are presently unsuited to the jurisdiction, but may in the future become so if global temperatures rise as expected. The results highlight the need for adaptive biosecurity systems that can recognise and assesses future risk trends, monitor these trends, and are able to respond rapidly to changing threats. © 2011 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.

Garcia Adeva J.J.,University of Western Australia | Garcia Adeva J.J.,Cooperative Research Center for National Plant Biosecurity
Biosystems Engineering | Year: 2012

This paper describes a simulation model for the foraging activity of honeybees (Apis mellifera) as they collect nectar and pollen. Understanding such behaviour and observing the resulting foraging spread patterns and distribution are vital from an ecological perspective and has useful applications in areas such as agriculture or biosecurity. The simulator is based on a spatio-temporal model and implemented following a Web-based architecture. This simulation model takes into account of detailed floral distributions, weather, hours of daylight, and variations in daily nectar and pollen production by flowers. The produced simulation technology includes a user interface that allows the introduction of the simulation parameters (e.g. spatial resolution and extent, model configuration settings, visual specification of the simulation environment on the map) and receive a detailed results report. The simulation model is evaluated by performing multiple experiments and verifying the results obtained. © 2012 IAgrE.

Campbell P.M.,CSIRO | Campbell P.M.,Cooperative Research Center for National Plant Biosecurity
Journal of Stored Products Research | Year: 2010

Various lines of evidence suggest that mitochondria might be the site of constitutive differences between coleopteran pests of stored products with and without resistance to the fumigant phosphine. In this study two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis with Differential In-Gel Electrophoresis (DIGE) was used to compare soluble proteins from the mitochondria of phosphine-susceptible and -resistant . Tribolium castaneum. Eighty-five spots were aligned across all nine gels and a further 111 across all but one gel. Each gel displayed the proteome from a susceptible strain, a resistant strain and a standard made by mixing aliquots from all experimental samples. No significant differences were observed between resistant strains and strains susceptible to phosphine. However, proteins of lower abundance and membrane proteins were not detected so important resistance-associated differences might yet be detected by more exhaustive techniques. © 2010.

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