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Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP | Phase: ENERGY.2009.5.2.1 | Award Amount: 5.26M | Year: 2010

Although significant leakage from CO2 storage sites is not expected, if it did occur there could be adverse environmental consequences, which are not well constrained. The objective of RISCS is to provide fundamental research on environmental impacts, necessary to underpin frameworks for the safe management of CO2 storage sites. To achieve this, RISCS will quantitatively assess environmental impacts from exposure to known CO2 fluxes. The assessments will be based on field laboratory experiments, measurements at natural leakage sites and numerical simulations, for both marine and terrestrial ecosystems. This will provide new constraints on the impacts of CO2 leakage on humans and onshore and offshore ecosystems. RISCS will provide the underpinning information necessary to: 1. Rigorously evaluate the safety of different storage sites 2. Carry out Environmental Impact Assessments (EIAs) over different timescales 3. Design storage sites to minimise hazards 4. Help to design near surface monitoring strategies 5. Refine storage licence applications and conditions 6. Develop a framework to communicate the safety of storage to key stakeholders This approach will meet the requirements of OSPAR and the EC Directive both in ensuring environmental protection and the planning of near surface monitoring programmes. The US EPA has recently published rules for CO2 storage, and a Vulnerability Evaluation Framework for geological sequestration of CO2. RISCS will build on this approach, creating a similar framework addressing European needs. In order to meet these objectives we have assembled a team with very specific and focussed expertise, enabling us to assess both northern and southern European impacts scenarios, onshore and offshore. To maintain a full external perspective on the research, from both scientific and public acceptance viewpoints, we have enlisted leading CCS experts from CSLF partner countries, two NGOs, the IEA GHG programme and industry.

Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP | Phase: ENERGY.2010.5.2-3 | Award Amount: 5.31M | Year: 2011

CO2CARE aims to support the large scale demonstration of CCS technology by addressing the research requirements of CO2 storage site abandonment. It will deliver technologies and procedures for abandonment and post-closure safety, satisfying the regulatory requirements for transfer of responsibility. The project will focus on three key areas: well abandonment and long-term integrity; reservoir management and prediction from closure to the long-term; risk management methodologies for long-term safety. Objectives will be achieved via integrated laboratory research, field experiments and state-of-the-art numerical modelling, supported by literature review and data from a rich portfolio of real storage sites, covering a wide range of geological and geographical settings. CO2CARE will develop plugging techniques to ensure long-term well integrity; study the factors critical to long-term site safety; develop monitoring methods for leakage detection; investigate and develop remediation technologies. Predictive modelling approaches will be assessed for their ability to help define acceptance criteria. Risk management procedures and tools to assess post-closure system performance will be developed. Integrating these, the technical criteria necessary to assess whether a site meets the high level requirements for transfer of responsibility defined by the EU Directive will be established. The technologies developed will be implemented at the Ketzin site and dry-run applications for site abandonment will be developed for hypothetical closure scenarios at Sleipner and K12-B. Participation of partners from the US, Canada, Japan and Australia and data obtained from current and closed sites will add to the field monitoring database and place the results of CO2CARE in a world-wide perspective. Research findings will be presented as best-practice guidelines. Dissemination strategy will deliver results to a wide range of international stakeholders and the general public.

Muller N.,Cooperative Research Center for Greenhouse Gas Technologies
Transport in Porous Media | Year: 2011

The relative permeability of carbon dioxide (CO2) to brine influences the injectivity and plume migration when CO2 is injected in a reservoir for CO2 storage or enhanced oil recovery (EOR) purposes. It is common practice to determine the relative permeability of a fluid by means of laboratory measurements. Two principal approaches are used to obtain a relative permeability data: steady state and unsteady state. Although CO2 has been employed in enhanced oil recovery, not much data can be found in the open literature. The few studies available report wide ranges for CO2 relative permeability in typical sedimentary rocks such as Berea sandstone, dolomite, and others. The experimental setups vary for each study, employing steady and unsteady state approaches, different experimental parameters such as temperature, pressure, rock type, etc. and various interpretation methods. Hence, it is inherently difficult to compare the data and determine the origin of differences. It is evident that more experiments are needed to close this knowledge gap on relative permeability. This article concludes that standards for lab measurements need to be defined a. to establish a reliable CO2-brine relative permeability measurement method that can be repeated under the same conditions in any lab and b. to enable comparison of the data to accurately predict the well injection and fluid migration behavior in the reservoir. © 2010 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.

Webley P.A.,Cooperative Research Center for Greenhouse Gas Technologies
Adsorption | Year: 2014

The capture of CO2 from process and flue gas streams and subsequent sequestration was first proposed as a greenhouse gas mitigation option in the 1990s. This proposal spawned a series of laboratory and field tests in CO2 capture which has now grown into a major world-wide research effort encompassing a myriad of capture technologies and ingenious flow sheets integrating power production and carbon capture. Simultaneously, the explosive growth in materials science in the last two decades has produced a wealth of new materials and knowledge providing us with new avenues to explore to fine tune CO2 adsorption and selectivity. Laboratory and field studies over the last decade have explored the synergy of process and materials to produce numerous CO2 capture technologies and materials based on cyclic adsorption processes. In this brief perspective, we look at some of these developments and comment on the application and limitations of adsorption process to CO2 capture. We identify major engineering obstacles to overcome as well as potential breakthroughs necessary to achieve commercialization of adsorption processes for CO2 capture. Our perspective is primarily restricted to post-combustion flue gas capture and CO2 capture from natural gas. © 2014 Springer Science+Business Media New York.

Lwin M.J.,Cooperative Research Center for Greenhouse Gas Technologies
Geophysics | Year: 2011

To gauge the potential of seismic methods for the estimation of gas content in coal, the ultrasonic response of a sample saturated in turn with He, N2, CH4, and CO2 has been investigated. Specifically, traveltimes were used to determine P-wave velocity as a function of the difference between confining pressure and pore pressure. After crushing the sample to powder, adsorption isotherms for CO2 and CH4 were measured and then used to estimate the bulk densities, P-wave moduli, and impedances during the traveltime measurements. The data suggest a significant difference in density, P-wave modulus, and impedance under CO2 relative to CH4 saturation. Though these findings are based on the assumption that adsorption capacity of the sample when confined was similar to that measured after crushing, they are also roughly supported by isostatic strain measurements taken during swelling. Two possible causes of this behavior are, first, the mechanical properties of the adsorbed phase may be more liquid than gaslike. Second, the swelling of coal under confining pressure should lead to the closure of soft pores, thus stiffening the frame. © 2011 Society of Exploration Geophysicists.

LaForce T.C.,Cooperative Research Center for Greenhouse Gas Technologies
Computational Geosciences | Year: 2012

In this work, the analytical and numerical solutions for modeling miscible gas and water injection into an oil reservoir are presented. Conservation laws with three levels of complexity are considered. Only the most complex model has the correct phase behavior for the example system, which is a multicontact miscible condensing gas drive with simultaneous water and gas injection. Example displacements in which one or both of the simpler models result in accurate simulations in a fraction of the computation time are presented, along with an example in which neither simplified thermodynamic model achieves a truly satisfactory result. A methodology is presented that can be used to establish the accuracy of simplified models in 1-D simulation based on convergence to analytical solutions for the full three-phase system. © 2012 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.

Maring B.J.,Cooperative Research Center for Greenhouse Gas Technologies | Webley P.A.,Cooperative Research Center for Greenhouse Gas Technologies
International Journal of Greenhouse Gas Control | Year: 2013

A large number of promising adsorbent materials for CO2 capture are reported almost daily. Unfortunately, the assessment of an adsorbent in a process is far more challenging. Statements on expected performance are usually confined to visual inspection of isotherms or calculations of pure component selectivities. These are poor indicators of performance in an actual capture process. We present here a new simplified pressure/vacuum swing adsorption model which can be used to quickly screen adsorbents for use in CO2 capture applications. The model strikes a balance between full adsorption simulation (which requires detailed knowledge of PSA operation and is time consuming) and simple visual inspection of isotherms and calculations of selectivities (which is incorrect and misleading in many cases). Our model has been validated against analytical PSA models, full adsorption numerical simulations, and experiments. Using post-combustion VSA as an example, we use the model to compare several types of adsorbents (zeolite 13X, Mg-MOF-74, Activated Carbon, PEI/MCF chemisorbent). Our analysis shows that 13X remains the best adsorbent in VSA applications (for dry flue gas of 12% composition) even though Mg-MOF-74 shows considerably higher CO2 capacity. We have also conducted a sensitivity study to determine which properties are most important to improving performance and we estimate the limits of PSA performance. Adsorbent selectivity and thermal effects have a more significant effect on the specific power consumption than does CO2 adsorption capacity. The optimal heat of adsorption of CO2 for PSA application is between 35 and 45kJ/mol regardless of N2 heat of adsorption. Furthermore, continual increase in surface area is not necessarily beneficial to overall performance, becoming more detrimental as the heat of adsorption of N2 increases. As an estimate of an upper limit of material performance, a hypothetical material with the same surface area as MOF-177, no N2 adsorption, and a CO2 heat of adsorption of 35kJ yields a 68% increase in working capacity and an increase in purity from 78% to 94% when compared to 13X. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.

Jenkins C.,Cooperative Research Center for Greenhouse Gas Technologies
International Journal of Greenhouse Gas Control | Year: 2013

Statistical methods will be important tools in the monitoring of CO2 storage sites, because any signals of leakage are likely to be small compared with measurement and modelling error and natural variability. To conclude that there is no leakage at a storage site necessarily involves consideration of leakage models, as proving " no leakage" as an isolated proposition is impossible. It is important in the circumstances of carbon capture and storage (CCS) to have clear and reproducible methods for testing leakage and no-leakage models against each other in the light of data, and some statistical methods are more useful than others in achieving this. This article reviews three broad approaches to the statistical interpretation of data containing a small leakage signal, with the objective of clarifying the concepts involved for practitioners in CCS who are not statisticians. Bayesian methods are given particular emphasis because they most clearly answer the questions that stakeholders ask, and give a natural framework for dealing with a comprehensive suite of models. The nature and importance of baseline data is discussed in the context of statistical interpretation of monitoring data. © 2013 .

Cooperative Research Center for Greenhouse Gas Technologies | Date: 2011-04-21

The present invention relates to a process and plant for removing acid gases such as carbon dioxide, sulphur containing compounds and nitrogen containing compounds from gas streams including high and low pressure gas streams. A solvent solution containing alkali carbonates absorbs the acid gases including carbon dioxide and either one or both of sulphur and/or nitrogen containing compounds. The bicarbonate is regenerated into a carbonate form to provide a gas stream rich in carbon dioxide, and sulphur and/or nitrogen containing compounds are recovered.

Cooperative Research Center for Greenhouse Gas Technologies | Date: 2011-04-19

The present invention is based on the realization that the carbon dioxide component of industrial gas streams also containing steam can be processed so to utilize either as latent and/or sensible heat the heat available from the steam component to assist in separating carbon dioxide from the remainder of the gas stream. For example, flue gases produced by power stations burning brown coal, black coal or natural gas inherently contain a useful amount of energy that can be harnessed according to the present invention. According to particular preferred forms of the invention, nitrogen and sulphur constituent such as SO_(x )and NO_(x), H_(2)S and other nitrogen containing compounds may also be removed from the gas stream through direct contact with the absorbing medium and used to produce by-products such as fertiliser material.

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