Cooperative Research Center for Contamination Assessment and Remediation of Environment

Box Hill South, Australia

Cooperative Research Center for Contamination Assessment and Remediation of Environment

Box Hill South, Australia
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Subashchandrabose S.R.,University of South Australia | Subashchandrabose S.R.,Cooperative Research Center for Contamination Assessment and Remediation of Environment | Ramakrishnan B.,University of South Australia | Ramakrishnan B.,Cooperative Research Center for Contamination Assessment and Remediation of Environment | And 8 more authors.
Biotechnology Advances | Year: 2011

Microbial metabolites are of huge biotechnological potential and their production can be coupled with detoxification of environmental pollutants and wastewater treatment mediated by the versatile microorganisms. The consortia of cyanobacteria/microalgae and bacteria can be efficient in detoxification of organic and inorganic pollutants, and removal of nutrients from wastewaters, compared to the individual microorganisms. Cyanobacterial/algal photosynthesis provides oxygen, a key electron acceptor to the pollutant-degrading heterotrophic bacteria. In turn, bacteria support photoautotrophic growth of the partners by providing carbon dioxide and other stimulatory means. Competition for resources and cooperation for pollutant abatement between these two guilds of microorganisms will determine the success of consortium engineering while harnessing the biotechnological potential of the partners. Relative to the introduction of gene(s) in a single organism wherein the genes depend on the regulatory- and metabolic network for proper expression, microbial consortium engineering is easier and achievable. The currently available biotechnological tools such as metabolic profiling and functional genomics can aid in the consortium engineering. The present review examines the current status of research on the consortia, and emphasizes the construction of consortia with desired partners to serve a dual mission of pollutant removal and commercial production of microbial metabolites. © 2011 Elsevier Inc.


Ramakrishnan B.,Indian Central Rice Research Institute | Megharaj M.,University of South Australia | Megharaj M.,Cooperative Research Center for Contamination Assessment and Remediation of Environment | Venkateswarlu K.,Sri Krishnadevaraya University | And 3 more authors.
Critical Reviews in Environmental Science and Technology | Year: 2010

Efforts are continuously being made to understand the non-target effects of environmental pollutants toward microalgae and cyanobacteria because of their ubiquity in aquatic and terrestrial environments and their highly adaptive survival abilities under environmental and evolutionary pressure over geological time. Depending on the toxicity criteria employed for these ecologically beneficial organisms, the impact of low and high doses of pollutants can range from stimulation to total inhibition. All of the investigations carried out so far have been predominantly concerned with individual chemicals despite the occurrence of pollutants in mixtures. In addition, only individual isolates have been primarily used to gather scientific information on the toxicity of pollutants. The risk assessment of pollutants toward these organisms necessitates further investigations, combining innovative molecular ecological methods and those for in situ analysis at the community level. The present review highlights the toxic influences of organic and inorganic pollutants and the response in terms of detoxification and resistance by these organisms. Copyright © 2010 Taylor and Francis Group, LLC.


Bahar M.M.,University of South Australia | Bahar M.M.,Cooperative Research Center for Contamination Assessment and Remediation of Environment | Megharaj M.,University of South Australia | Megharaj M.,Cooperative Research Center for Contamination Assessment and Remediation of Environment | And 2 more authors.
Biodegradation | Year: 2012

A new arsenite-oxidizing bacterium was isolated from a low arsenic-containing (8. 8 mg kg-1) soil. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequencing indicated that the strain was closely related to Stenotrophomonas panacihumi. Batch experiment results showed that the strain completely oxidized 500 μM of arsenite to arsenate within 12 h of incubation in a minimal salts medium. The optimum initial pH range for arsenite oxidation was 5-7. The strain was found to tolerate as high as 60 mM arsenite in culture media. The arsenite oxidase gene was amplified by PCR with degenerate primers. The deduced amino acid sequence showed the highest identity (69. 1 %) with the molybdenum containing large subunit of arsenite oxidase derived from Bosea sp. Furthermore the amino acids involved in binding the substrate arsenite, were conserved with the arsenite oxidases of other arsenite oxidizing bacteria such as Alcaligenes feacalis and Herminnimonas arsenicoxydans. To our knowledge, this study constitutes the first report on arsenite oxidation using Stenotrophomonas sp. and the strain has great potential for application in arsenic remediation of contaminated water. © 2012 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.


Kuppusamy S.,University of South Australia | Kuppusamy S.,Cooperative Research Center for Contamination Assessment and Remediation of Environment | Thavamani P.,Cooperative Research Center for Contamination Assessment and Remediation of Environment | Thavamani P.,University of Newcastle | And 4 more authors.
Water, Air, and Soil Pollution | Year: 2016

Treatability studies in real contaminated soils are essential to predict the feasibility of microbial consortium augmentation for field-scale bioremediation of contaminated sites. In this study, the biodegradation of a mixture of seven PAHs in a manufactured gas plant (MGP) soil contaminated with 3967 mg kg-1 of total PAHs using novel acid-, metal-tolerant, N-fixing, P-solubilizing, and biosurfactant-producing LMW and HMW PAH-degrading bacterial combinations as inoculums was compared in slurry- and solid-phase microcosms over natural attenuation. Bioaugmentation of 5 % of bacterial consortia A and N in slurry- and solid-phase systems enhanced 4.6-5.7 and 9.3-10.7 % of total PAH degradation, respectively, over natural attenuation. Occurrence of 62.7-88 % of PAH biodegradation during natural attenuation in soil and slurry illustrated the accelerated rate of intrinsic metabolic activity of the autochthonous microbial community in the selected MGP soil. Monitoring of the total microbial activity and population of PAH degraders revealed that the observed biodegradation trend in MGP soil resulted from microbial mineralization. In the slurry, higher biodegradation rate constant (k) and lower half-life values (t 1/2) was observed during bioaugmentation with consortium N, highlighting the use of bioaugmentation in bioslurries/bioreactor to achieve rapid and efficient bioremediation compared to that of a static solid system. In general, natural attenuation was on par with bioaugmentation. Hence, depending on the type of soil, natural attenuation might outweigh bioaugmentation and a careful investigation using laboratory treatability studies are highly recommended before the upscale of a developed bioremediation strategy to field level. © 2015 Springer International Publishing Switzerland.


Yang D.,University of South Australia | Wang L.,University of South Australia | Chen Z.,University of South Australia | Megharaj M.,University of South Australia | And 3 more authors.
Electroanalysis | Year: 2014

A new chemically modified bismuth film electrode coated with an ionic liquid [(1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium tetracyanoborate (EMIM TCB)] and Nafion was developed for the simultaneous determination Pb2+ and Cd2+ by anodic stripping voltammetry. Compared with conventional bismuth film electrodes, this electrode exhibited greatly improved electrochemical activity for Pb2+ and Cd2+ detection due to the unique properties of Nafion polymer and ionic liquid. The key experimental parameters related to the fabrication of the electrode and the voltammetric measurements were optimized on the basis of the stripping signals, where the peak currents increased linearly with the metal concentrations in a range of 10-120μgL-1 with a detect limit of 0.2μgL-1 for Pb2+, and 0.5μgL-1 for Cd2+ for 120s deposition. High reproducibility was indicated from the relative standard deviations (1.9 and 2.5%) for nine repetitive measurements of 20μgL-1 Pb2+ and Cd2+, respectively. In addition, the surface characteristics of the modified BiFE were investigated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and results showed that fibril-like bismuth nanostructures were formed on the porous Nafion polymer matrix. Finally, the developed electrode was applied to determine Pb2+ and Cd2+ in water samples, indicating that this electrode was sensitive, reliable and effective for the simultaneous determination of Pb2+ and Cd2+. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.


Yang D.,University of South Australia | Wang L.,University of South Australia | Chen Z.,University of South Australia | Megharaj M.,University of South Australia | And 3 more authors.
Microchimica Acta | Year: 2014

We report on a glassy carbon electrode modified with bismuth nanoparticles (NanoBiE) for the simultaneous determination Pb2+ and Cd2+ by anodic stripping voltammetry. Operational parameters such as bismuth nanoparticles labelling amount, deposition potential, deposition time and stripping parameters were optimized with respect to the determination of Pb2+ and Cd2+ in 0.1 M acetate buffer solution (pH 4.5). The NanoBiE gives well-defined, reproducible and sharp stripping peaks. The peak current response increases linearly with the metal concentration in a range of 5.0-60.0 μg L-1, with a detection limit of 0.8 and 0.4 μg L-1 for Pb2+ and Cd2+, respectively. The morphology and composition of the modified electrode before and after voltammetric measurements were analysed by scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive X-ray analysis. The NanoBiE was successfully applied to analysis of Pb2+ and Cd2+ in real water samples and the method was validated by ICP-MS technique, suggesting that the electrode can be considered as an interesting alternative to the bismuth film electrode for possible use in electrochemical studies and electroanalysis. [Figure not available: see fulltext.] © 2014 Springer-Verlag Wien.


Bahar M.M.,University of South Australia | Bahar M.M.,Cooperative Research Center for Contamination Assessment and Remediation of Environment | Megharaj M.,University of South Australia | Megharaj M.,Cooperative Research Center for Contamination Assessment and Remediation of Environment | And 2 more authors.
Water, Air, and Soil Pollution | Year: 2013

Arsenic contamination of groundwater and surface water is widespread throughout the world. Considering its carcinogenicity and toxicity to human and animal health, remediation of arsenic-contaminated water has become a high priority. There are several physicochemical-based conventional technologies available for removing arsenic from water. However, these technologies possess a number of limitations such as high cost and generation of toxic by-products, etc. Therefore, research on new sustainable and cost-effective arsenic removal technologies for water has recently become an area of intense research activity. Bioremediation technology offers great potential for possible future application in decontamination of pollutants from the natural environment. It is not only environmentally friendly but cost-effective as well. This review focuses on the state-of-art knowledge of currently available arsenic remediation methods, their prospects, and recent advances with particular emphasis on bioremediation strategies. © Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2013.


Yang D.,University of South Australia | Yang D.,Cooperative Research Center for Contamination Assessment and Remediation of Environment | Wang L.,University of South Australia | Wang L.,Cooperative Research Center for Contamination Assessment and Remediation of Environment | And 6 more authors.
Electrochimica Acta | Year: 2014

A new chemically modified glassy carbon electrode based on bismuth film coated mesoporous silica nanoparticles was developed and evaluated for reliable quantification of trace Pb2+ and Cd2+ by anodic stripping square wave voltammetry in natural water samples. Compared with conventional bismuth film electrodes or bismuth nanoparticles modified electrodes, this electrode exhibited significantly improved sensitivity and stability for Pb 2+ and Cd2+ detection. The key experimental parameters related to the fabrication of the electrode and the voltammetric measurements were optimized on the basis of the stripping signals, where the peak currents increased linearly with the metal concentrations in a range of 2-150 μg L-1 with a detect limit of 0.2 μg L-1 for Pb 2+, and 0.6 μg L-1 for Cd2+ for 120s deposition. Good reproducibility was achieved on both single and equally prepared electrodes. In addition, scanning electron microscopy reveals that fibril-like bismuth structures were formed on silica nanoparticles, which could be responsible for the improved voltammetric performance due to the enhanced surface area. Finally, the developed electrode was applied to determine Pb 2+ and Cd2+ in water samples, indicating that this electrode was sensitive, reliable and effective for the simultaneous determination of Pb2+ and Cd2+. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd.


Yang D.,University of South Australia | Wang L.,University of South Australia | Chen Z.,University of South Australia | Megharaj M.,University of South Australia | And 3 more authors.
Electroanalysis | Year: 2013

The bismuth-coated electrode is known to be prone to errors caused by copper(II). This study investigates copper(II) interference at bismuth film electrode for the detection of lead(II) and cadmium(II). It was conducted using glassy carbon electrode, while the bismuth film was plated in situ simultaneously with the target metal ions at -1200mV. Copper(II) presented in solution significantly reduced the sensitivity of the electrode, for example there was an approximately 70% and 90% decrease in peak signals for lead(II) and cadmium(II), respectively, at a 10-fold molar excess of copper(II). The decrease in sensitivity was ascribed to the competition between copper and bismuth or the metal ions for surface active sites. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) analysis suggested a large decrease in the amount of bismuth nanoparticles formed on the electrode surface in the presence of copper(II) occurred, validating the competition between copper and bismuth ions for surface active sites. Recovery of the stripping signal of lead(II) and cadmium(II) was obtained by adding ferrocyanide ion to the solution. Finally, the proposed method was successfully applied to determine lead(II) and cadmium(II) in water samples and the method was validated by ICP-MS technique. © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.


PubMed | University of Newcastle and Cooperative Research Center for Contamination Assessment and Remediation of Environment
Type: | Journal: Talanta | Year: 2015

This study introduced a patented novel methodological system for automatically analysis of Fourier Transform Infrared Spectrometer (FTIR) spectrum data located at fingerprint region (wavenumber 670-800 cm(-1)), to simultaneously determinate multiple petroleum hydrocarbons (PHs) in real mixture samples. This system includes: an object oriented baseline correction; Band decomposition (curve fitting) method with mathematical optimization; and Artificial Neural Network (ANN) for determination, which is suitable for the characteristics of this IR regions, where the spectra are normally with low signal to noise ratio and high density of peaks. BTEX components are potentially lethal carcinogens and contained in many petroleum products. As a case study, six BTEX components were determinate automatically and simultaneously in mixture vapor samples. The robustness of the BTEX determination was validated using real petroleum samples, and the prediction results were compared with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS).

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