Cooperative Research Center for Advanced Composite Structures Ltd.

Fishermans, Australia

Cooperative Research Center for Advanced Composite Structures Ltd.

Fishermans, Australia
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Kandare E.,RMIT University | Kandare E.,Cooperative Research Center for Advanced Composite Structures Ltd. | Griffin G.J.,RMIT University | Feih S.,RMIT University | And 3 more authors.
Composites Part A: Applied Science and Manufacturing | Year: 2012

This paper presents a new modelling approach to analyse the fire structural response of fibre-polymer laminates protected with an intumescent surface coating. The model is designed to predict the temperature, decomposition, softening and failure of laminates with an intumescent coating in fire. The modelling involves a three-stage analytical approach: (i) thermal-chemical analysis of the intumescent coating, (ii) thermal-chemical analysis of heat transfer through the laminate substrate (beneath the intumescent coating), and (iii) thermal-mechanical analysis of the softening and failure of the laminate under tension or compression loading. Fire structural tests were performed on a woven glass/vinyl ester laminate coated with an organic intumescent material to validate the modelling approach. It is shown the model can predict with good accuracy the temperature distribution and swelling of the intumescent coating with increasing exposure time to a constant heat flux. The model can approximate the temperature, softening and failure of the laminate substrate. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


Baneen U.,University of New South Wales | Kinkaid N.M.,University of New South Wales | Guivant J.E.,University of New South Wales | Herszberg I.,Cooperative Research Center for Advanced Composite Structures Ltd
Journal of Sound and Vibration | Year: 2012

In this paper, a method is presented for the localisation of structural damage. The validation of the method is based on simulated data and experimental measurements. Due to measurement errors near resonances, the mode shapes extracted from the frequency response functions (FRFs) and hence the damage indices (DI) can contain many false peaks. The method presented in this paper uses this set of damage indices from each mode generated by the Gapped-Smoothing Method (GSM), and suppresses the noise by allowing only those peaks which show the location of the damage. This paper details the theory of the noise suppression method and the experimental results for a steel beam, damaged with two narrow slots at different locations. A noise addition process was applied to the simulated data in order to more realistically represent experimental measurements. The steel beam was modelled in ANSYS and harmonic analysis was used to obtain FRFs at different locations of the beam. The results were checked for different slot depths by adding 510% noise in the simulated results. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd.


Feih S.,RMIT University | Feih S.,Cooperative Research Center for Advanced Composite Structures Ltd. | Boiocchi E.,Cooperative Research Center for Advanced Composite Structures Ltd. | Mathys G.,Defence Science and Technology Organisation, Australia | And 3 more authors.
Composites Part B: Engineering | Year: 2011

This paper investigates the effects of temperature, heating time and atmosphere on the tensile modulus and strength of thermally-treated E-glass fibres. The heating conditions that were investigated are identical to those used in thermal recycling of waste polymer matrix composite materials, and therefore this study determines the effects of the recycling process conditions on the properties of reclaimed fibreglass. The loss in fibre strength is dependent on the temperature and time of the thermal process, and large strength loss occurs under the heating conditions used for high temperature incineration of polymer composites. A phenomenological model is presented for the residual fibre strength for the temperatures and heating time of the thermal recycling process. The reduction in fibre strength is dependent on the thermal recycling atmosphere under low temperature or short heating time conditions, but at high temperatures the strength loss is the same, regardless of furnace atmosphere (ambient air, dry air or inert gas). Quantitative fractographic analysis of the fibres shows that fracture for all heat treatments is caused by surface flaws. The strength loss is most probably due to structural relaxation during thermal annealing and a secondary effect of adsorbed surface water attacking the glass by thermally-activated stress-corrosion. It is shown that large reductions in fibre strength due to thermal recycling are not recovered during composite manufacture, therefore resulting in composite materials with significantly lower strength. The reduced strength of the composite matches the reduced fibre strength following thermal recycling. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


Minakuchi S.,University of Tokyo | Takeda N.,University of Tokyo | Takeda S.-I.,Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency | Nagao Y.,Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency | And 2 more authors.
Composites Part A: Applied Science and Manufacturing | Year: 2011

This study demonstrated fiber-optic-based life cycle monitoring of a representative carbon fiber reinforced plastic (CFRP) stiffened panel manufactured by vacuum assisted resin transfer molding (VARTM). A single optical fiber was embedded between the stiffeners and the skin during the laminate lay-up process and the formed fiber-optic network was then utilized to monitor the manufacturing process and subsequent impact tests. A Brillouin-based system with a spatial resolution of 10 cm was utilized for distributed strain measurement. Strain changes induced during the manufacturing process and the impact tests were comprehensively presented and discussed. The internal state of the panel was successfully monitored throughout its life, confirming the effectiveness of life cycle monitoring by fiber-optic-based distributed sensing for developing highly-reliable composite structures. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


Feih S.,RMIT University | Feih S.,Cooperative Research Center for Advanced Composite Structures Ltd | Mouritz A.P.,RMIT University | Mathys Z.,Defence Science and Technology Organisation, Australia | Gibson A.G.,Northumbria University
Journal of Fire Sciences | Year: 2010

A coupled thermo-mechanical model is presented for calculating the compressive strength and failure of polymer laminated composites with thermal barrier when exposed to fire. Thermal barriers are used to protect composite structures from fire, and this article presents a model for calculating the improved structural survivability under compression loading. The thermal component of the model predicts the through-thickness temperature profile of the composite when protected from fire using a passive thermal barrier insulation material. The thermal analysis is coupled to a mechanical model that calculates the loss in compressive strength with increasing temperature and heating time. The model predicts the strength loss and failure time of an insulated composite supporting a static compressive load when exposed to fire. The accuracy of the model is evaluated using failure times measured in fire-under-compression load tests on a woven E-glass/vinyl ester composite protected with a passive thermal barrier. The model predicts reductions to the failure time with increasing heat flux (temperature), applied compressive stress, and reduced insulation thickness, and this is confirmed by experimental testing. It is envisaged that the thermo-mechanical model is a useful analytical method to design thermal barrier material systems to protect composite structures exposed to high temperature or fire. © SAGE Publications 2010.


Orifici A.C.,RMIT University | Herszberg I.,Cooperative Research Center for Advanced Composite Structures Ltd
27th Congress of the International Council of the Aeronautical Sciences 2010, ICAS 2010 | Year: 2010

An experimental investigation was conducted to study the effect of notch size and length scale on the damage of carbon fibre-reinforced composite specimens. Open hole tension specimens in a range of configurations were tested quasi-statically to ultimate failure. The load response, damage modes and strain field development were experimentally recorded. The results demonstrated that changing the ply thickness and specimen dimensions markedly affected the damage modes and specimen behaviour. This output provides key insights into the nature of composite behaviour, and is also critical for the development and validation of analysis methodologies capturing damage initiation and progression.


Summers P.T.,Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University | Lattimer B.Y.,Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University | Case S.,Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University | Feih S.,RMIT University | Feih S.,Cooperative Research Center for Advanced Composite Structures Ltd.
Composites Part A: Applied Science and Manufacturing | Year: 2012

A thermo-structural model was previously developed and validated for predicting the failure of compressively loaded fiber-reinforced polymer (FRP) laminates by one-sided heating in fire. The model consists of a one-dimensional pyrolysis model to predict the temperature and decomposition response. An integrated structural model uses the thermal predictions to predict thermally-induced bending caused by one-sided heating. Failure is predicted based on a localized failure criterion using the compressive strength of the material. The analysis was performed by slightly perturbing the thermal and mechanical properties to determine their effect on predictions of the out-of-plane deflection and time-to-failure. The predicted out-of-plane deflections were affected by several properties, including the in-plane thermal expansion and residual elastic modulus. The residual elastic modulus also had a significant effect on time-to-failure predictions. This demonstrates the sensitivity of the model to these parameters in predicting both the time-to-failure and deflection behavior of the laminate. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


Feih S.,RMIT University | Feih S.,Cooperative Research Center for Advanced Composite Structures Ltd | Mouritz A.P.,RMIT University
Composites Part A: Applied Science and Manufacturing | Year: 2012

The effect of fire on the tensile properties of carbon fibres is experimentally determined to provide new insights into the tensile performance of carbon fibre-polymer composite materials during fire. Structural tests on carbon-epoxy laminate reveal that thermally-activated weakening of the fibre reinforcement is the dominant softening process which leads to failure in the event of a fire. This process is experimentally investigated by determining the reduction to the tensile properties and identifying the softening mechanism of T700 carbon fibre following exposure to simulated fires of different temperatures (up to 700°C) and atmospheres (air and inert). The fibre modulus decreases with increasing temperature (above ∼500°C) in air, which is attributed to oxidation of the higher stiffness layer in the near-surface fibre region. The fibre modulus is not affected when heated in an inert (nitrogen) atmosphere due to the absence of surface oxidation, revealing that the stiffness loss of carbon fibre composites in fire is sensitive to the oxygen content. The tensile strength of carbon fibre is reduced by nearly 50% following exposure to temperatures over the range 400-700°C in an air or inert atmosphere. Unlike the fibre modulus, the reduction in fibre strength is insensitive to the oxygen content of the atmosphere during fire. The reduction in strength is possibly attributable to very small (under ∼100 nm) flaws and removal of the sizing caused by high temperature exposure. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


Summers P.T.,Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University | Lattimer B.Y.,Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University | Case S.,Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University | Feih S.,RMIT University | Feih S.,Cooperative Research Center for Advanced Composite Structures Ltd.
Composites Part A: Applied Science and Manufacturing | Year: 2012

A thermo-structural model was developed and validated to predict the failure of compressively loaded fiber-reinforced polymer (FRP) laminates during one-sided heating from a fire. The model consists of a one-dimensional pyrolysis model to predict the thermal response of a decomposing material and an integral structural model based on the bending equation. The thermo-structural model predicts temperatures, out-of-plane deflections, and compressive failure of laminates exposed to fire conditions. Model results were validated with intermediate-scale compression load failure tests with a one-sided heat flux exposure. Through a sensitivity analysis of the model predictions to input parameters, the residual elastic modulus was determined to be of utmost importance to both prediction of out-of-plane deflection and time-to-failure. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


Kandare E.,RMIT University | Kandare E.,Cooperative Research Center for Advanced Composite Structures Ltd | Feih S.,RMIT University | Feih S.,Cooperative Research Center for Advanced Composite Structures Ltd | And 4 more authors.
Materials Science and Engineering A | Year: 2010

This paper presents a thermo-mechanical model based on creep mechanics to predict compression deformation and failure of aluminium alloys exposed to fire. The model is based on the analytical work by Maljaars et al. [1] for the compression deformation of aluminium due to primary and secondary creep processes when exposed to transient heating caused by fire. The model can predict the creep-induced buckling failure of aluminium plates exposed to fire. The model is validated by fire structural tests performed on a non-age-hardening aluminium alloy (5083 H116) exposed to constant heat flux levels between 25 and 50 kW/m2 (with the equivalent maximum surface temperature between 200 and 360 °C). The model predicts the failure time of the aluminium will increase when the applied compression stress and/or heat flux of the fire is reduced due to a slowing of the creep rate. This was confirmed with failure times measured in the fire structural tests, which showed close agreement with the theoretical failure times. The model predicts the aluminium alloy will not fail under low compression stress or low heat flux conditions because the creep process is too slow, and this was confirmed by fire structural testing. Parametric analysis presented in the paper shows the potential application of the model in predicting the deformation and failure of compression-loaded aluminium structures exposed to fires of high intensity. © 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

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