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Vose R.S.,National Climatic Data Center | Applequist S.,National Climatic Data Center | Menne M.J.,National Climatic Data Center | Williams C.N.,National Climatic Data Center | Thorne P.,Cooperative Institute for Climate and Satellites North Carolina
Geophysical Research Letters | Year: 2012

Temperature trends over 1979-2008 in the U.S. Historical Climatology Network (HCN) are compared with those in six recent atmospheric reanalyses. For the conterminous United States, the trend in the adjusted HCN (0.327 C dec -1) is generally comparable to the ensemble mean of the reanalyses (0.342 C dec-1). It is also well within the range of the reanalysis trend estimates (0.280 to 0.437 C dec-1). The bias adjustments play a critical role, as the raw HCN dataset displays substantially less warming than all of the reanalyses. HCN has slightly lower maximum and minimum temperature trends than those reanalyses with hourly temporal resolution, suggesting the HCN adjustments may not fully compensate for recent non-climatic artifacts at some stations. Spatially, both the adjusted HCN and all of the reanalyses indicate widespread warming across the nation during the study period. Overall, the adjusted HCN is in broad agreement with the suite of reanalyses. © Copyright 2012 by the American Geophysical Union.

Li H.,Florida State University | Kanamitsu M.,University of California at San Diego | Hong S.-Y.,Yonsei University | Yoshimura K.,University of Tokyo | And 3 more authors.
Climatic Change | Year: 2014

This study examines a future climate change scenario over California in a 10-km coupled regional downscaling system of the Regional Spectral Model for the atmosphere and the Regional Ocean Modeling System for the ocean forced by the global Community Climate System Model version 3.0 (CCSM3). In summer, the coupled and uncoupled downscaled experiments capture the warming trend of surface air temperature, consistent with the driving CCSM3 forcing. However, the surface warming change along the California coast is weaker in the coupled downscaled experiment than it is in the uncoupled downscaling. Atmospheric cooling due to upwelling along the coast commonly appears in both the present and future climates, but the effect of upwelling is not fully compensated for by the projected large-scale warming in the coupled downscaling experiment. The projected change of extreme warm events is quite different between the coupled and uncoupled downscaling experiments, with the former projecting a more moderate change. The projected future change in precipitation is not significantly different between coupled and uncoupled downscaling. Both the coupled and uncoupled downscaling integrations predict increased onshore sea breeze change in summer daytime and reduced offshore land breeze change in summer nighttime along the coast from the Bay area to Point Conception. Compared to the simulation of present climate, the coupled and uncoupled downscaling experiments predict 17.5 % and 27.5 % fewer Catalina eddy hours in future climate respectively. © 2013, Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht.

Vose R.S.,National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration | Arndt D.,National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration | Banzon V.F.,National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration | Easterling D.R.,National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration | And 10 more authors.
Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society | Year: 2012

This paper described the new release of MLOST (version 3.5), the global surface temperature product used by NOAA in monitoring and assessment activities. The primary motivation for the release was the inclusion of a new land dataset (GHCN-M version 3), which contains improved adjustments for changes in station location, instrumentation, and siting conditions. The new version is broadly consistent with previous global analyses, exhibiting a trend of 0.076°C decade-1 over the past century, 0.162°C decade-1 over the past three decades, and widespread warming in both time periods. In general, the new release exhibits only modest differences with its predecessor, the most obvious being very slightly more warming at the global scale and slightly different trend patterns over the terrestrial surface. © 2012 American Meteorological Society.

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