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Zheng L.,Huazhong Agricultural University | Wei H.,Huazhong Agricultural University | Wei H.,Cooperative Innovation Center for Sustainable Pig Production | Cheng C.,Huazhong Agricultural University | And 4 more authors.
British Journal of Nutrition

The aim of this study was to investigate whether supplementing branched-chain amino acids (AA) (BCAA) along with a reduced-protein diet increases piglet growth, and whether elevated feed intake and muscle growth-promoting effect contribute to this improvement. In Expt 1, twenty-eight weanling piglets were randomly fed one of the following four diets: a positive control (PC) diet, a reduced-protein negative control (NC) diet, an NC diet supplemented with BCAA to the same levels as in the PC diet (test 1 (T1)) and an NC diet supplemented with a 2-fold dose of BCAA in T1 diet (test 2 (T2)) for 28 d. In Expt 2, twenty-one weanling piglets were randomly assigned to NC, T1 and pair-fed T1 (P) groups. NC and T1 diets were the same as in Expt 1, whereas piglets in the P group were individually pair-fed with the NC group. In Expt 1, the NC group had reduced piglet growth and feed intake compared with the PC group, which were restored in T1 and T2 groups, but no differences were detected between T1 and T2 groups. In Expt 2, T1 and P groups showed increases in growth and mass of some muscles compared with the NC group. Increased feed intake after BCAA supplementation was associated with increased mRNA expressions of agouti-related peptide and co-express neuropeptide Y (NPY) and phosphorylation of mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) and ribosomal protein S6 kinase 1 (S6K1), as well as decreased mRNA expressions of melanocortin-4 receptor and cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript and phosphorylation of eukaryotic initiation factor 2α in the hypothalamus. No differences were observed among PC, T1 and T2 groups except for higher NPY mRNA expression in the T2 group than in the PC group (Expt 1). Phosphorylation of mTOR and S6K1 in muscle was enhanced after BCAA supplementation, which was independent of change in feed intake (Expt 2). In conclusion, supplementing BCAA to reduced-protein diets increases feed intake and muscle mass, and contributes to better growth performance in piglets. © The Authors 2016. Source

Yan G.,Huazhong Agricultural University | Yan G.,Cooperative Innovation Center for Sustainable Pig Production | Yan X.,Huazhong Agricultural University | Yan X.,Cooperative Innovation Center for Sustainable Pig Production

Over the past few decades, proteomic research has seen unprecedented development due to technological advancement. However, whole-cell proteomics still has limitations with respect to sample complexity and the accuracy of determining protein locations. To deal with these limitations, several subcellular proteomic studies have been initiated. Nevertheless, compared to other subcellular proteomic fields, such as mitochondrial proteomics, ribosomal proteomics has lagged behind due to the long-held idea that the ribosome is just a translation machine. Recently, with the proposed ribosome filter hypothesis and subsequent studies of ribosome-specific regulatory capacity, ribosomal proteomics has become a promising chapter for both proteomic and ribosomal research. In this review, we discuss the current strategies and approaches in ribosomal proteomics and the efficacies as well as disadvantages of individual approaches for further improvement. © 2015 Elsevier B.V. and Société Française de Biochimie et Biologie Moléculaire (SFBBM). Source

Wang D.,Huazhong Agricultural University | Wang D.,Cooperative Innovation Center for Sustainable Pig Production | Wang D.,Washington State University | Xi J.,Biogas Institute of Ministry of Agriculture | And 8 more authors.
Bioresource Technology

Pretreatment with ozone combined with aqueous ammonia was used to recover residual organic carbon from recalcitrant solid digestate for ethanol production after anaerobic digestion (AD) of rice straw. Methane yield of AD at mesophilic and thermophilic conditions, and ethanol production of solid digestate were investigated. The results showed that the methane yield at thermophilic temperature was 72.2% higher than that at mesophilic temperature under the same conditions of 24 days and 17% solid concentration. And also the ethanol production efficiency of solid digestate after thermophilic process was 24.3% higher than that of solid digestate after mesophilic process. In this study, the optimal conditions for integrated methane and ethanol processes were determined as 55 °C, 17% solid concentration and 24 days. 58.6% of glucose conversion, 142.8 g/kg of methane yield and 65.2 g/kg of ethanol yield were achieved, and the highest net energy balance was calculated as 6416 kJ/kg. © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. Source

Hu X.,Cooperative Innovation Center for Sustainable Pig Production | Jiang S.,Huazhong Agricultural University | Jiang S.,Cooperative Innovation Center for Sustainable Pig Production | Peng J.,Cooperative Innovation Center for Sustainable Pig Production
Open Biology

Adipose tissue is a key determinant of whole-body metabolism and energy homeostasis. Unravelling the transcriptional regulatory process during adipogenesis is therefore highly relevant from a biomedical perspective. In these studies, zinc finger protein B-cell lymphoma 6 (Bcl6) was demonstrated to have a role in early adipogenesis of mesenchymal stem cells. Bcl6 is enriched in preadipose versus non-preadipose fibroblasts and shows upregulated expression in the early stage of adipogenesis. Gainand loss-of-function studies revealed that Bcl6 acts as a key regulator of adipose commitment and differentiation both in vitro and ex vivo. RNAi-mediated knockdown of Bcl6 in C3H10T1/2 cells greatly inhibited adipogenic potential, whereas Bcl6 overexpression enhanced adipogenic differentiation. This transcription factor also directly or indirectly targets and controls the expression of some early and late adipogenic regulators (i.e. Zfp423, Zfp467, KLF15, C/EBPd, C/EBPa and PPARg). We further identified that Bcl6 transactivated the signal transducers and activators of transcription 1 (STAT1), which was determined as a required factor for adipogenesis. Moreover, overexpression of STAT1 rescued the impairment of adipogenic commitment and differentiation induced by Bcl6 knockdown in C3H10T1/2 cells, thereby confirming that STAT1 is a downstream direct target of Bcl6. This study identifies Bcl6 as a positive transcriptional regulator of early adipose commitment. © 2016 The Authors. Source

Peng X.,Huazhong Agricultural University | Song T.,Huazhong Agricultural University | Hu X.,Huazhong Agricultural University | Zhou Y.,Huazhong Agricultural University | And 7 more authors.
BioMed Research International

It has been proved that terminally differentiated mature adipocytes possess abilities to dedifferentiate into fibroblast-like progeny cells with self-renewal and multiple differentiation, termed dedifferentiated fat (DFAT) cells. However, the biological properties of DFAT cells during long-term culture in vitro have not been elucidated. Here, we obtained fibroblast-like morphology of porcine DFAT cells by ceiling culture. During the dedifferentiation process, round mature adipocytes with single large lipid droplets changed into spindle-shaped cells accompanied by the adipogenic markers PPARγ, aP2, LPL, and Adiponectin significant downregulation. Flow cytometric analysis showed that porcine DFAT cells displayed similar cell-surface antigen profile to mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). Furthermore, different passages of porcine DFAT cells during long-term culture in vitro retained high levels of cell viabilities (>97%), efficient proliferative capacity including population doubling time ranged from 20 h to 22 h and population doubling reached 47.40 ± 1.64 by 58 days of culture. In addition, porcine DFAT cells maintained the multiple differentiation capabilities into adipocytes, osteoblasts, and skeletal myocytes and displayed normal chromosomal karyotypes for prolonged passaging. Therefore, porcine DFAT cells may be a novel model of stem cells for studying the functions of gene in the different biological events. © 2015 Xuewu Peng et al. Source

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