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Castel Guelfo di Bologna, Italy

Divari S.,University of Turin | Pregel P.,University of Turin | Cannizzo F.T.,University of Turin | Starvaggi Cucuzza L.,University of Turin | And 2 more authors.
Food Chemistry | Year: 2013

Growth promoter administration, in livestock, potentially poses a major threat to public health, due to the potential endocrine and carcinogenic activity of residues, accumulating in edible tissues, such as skeletal muscle. Therefore, development of new screening tests and methods for the detection of illicit treatments of food animals would be useful. In this study the serum concentrations of oxytocin peptide were measured in beef cattle receiving 17β oestradiol, dexamethasone or placebo over a period of 40 days. Changes in gene expression of oxytocin precursor in skeletal muscle were also examined in these animals. Serum analysis using an oxytocin EIA kit indicated a significant up-regulation of the biosynthesis of this nonapeptide only in cattle after 17β oestradiol, but not after dexamethasone or placebo treatment. Quantitative PCR (qPCR) analysis showed a significant overexpression of the oxytocin precursor gene by 33.5 and 13.3-fold in cattle treated with 17β oestradiol and dexamethasone, respectively, in comparison to placebo treated animals. Regulation of gene expression by some myogenic regulatory factors in skeletal muscle was also evaluated in these animal groups, confirming the activity of both growth promoters on this gene. To investigate the use of the oxytocin precursor gene as biomarker for 17β oestradiol and dexamethasone treatment in beef cattle, an absolute quantification of this gene by qPCR was developed. A standard curve was generated and developed with TaqMan® technology and optimal criterion value, sensitivity and specificity of this screening method were established through ROC analysis. This analysis suggested that the up-regulation of oxytocin precursor gene expression in skeletal muscle tissue is a valid marker for detection of illicit 17β oestradiol and/or dexamethasone use in beef cattle. This method may serve as a novel diagnostic tool in the screening phase, and, if introduced in routine testing, may significantly improve overall efficacy and success of the food screening process ordered by state authorities. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. Source


Maccaferri S.,University of Bologna | Klinder A.,University of Reading | Brigidi P.,University of Bologna | Cavina P.,Coop Italia | Costabile A.,University of Reading
Applied and Environmental Microbiology | Year: 2012

Considering the increase in the consumption of yeasts as human probiotics, the aim of this study was to broadly investigate the beneficial properties of the lactic yeast Kluyveromyces marxianus (formerly Kluyveromyces fragilis) B0399. Several potential probiotic traits of K. marxianus B0399 were investigated by using in vitro assays, including adhesion and immune modulation, and the effect of the administration of 10 7 CFU/day of K. marxianus B0399 on the composition and metabolic activity of the human intestinal microbiota was investigated in a 3-stage continuous-culture system simulating the human colon. We demonstrated that this strain was highly adhesive to human enterocyte-like Caco-2 cells and modulated the immune response, inducing proinflammatory cytokines in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs). In the presence of inflammatory stimulation with lipopolysaccharide (LPS), K. marxianus B0399 provoked decreases in the levels of production of proinflammatory cytokines in PBMCs and Caco-2 cells, thus ameliorating the inflammatory response. Furthermore, K. marxianus B0399 impacted the colonic microbiota, increasing the bifidobacterial concentration in the stages of the colonic model system simulating the proximal and transverse colon. The amounts of the short-chain fatty acids acetate and propionate also increased following yeast supplementation. Finally, K. marxianus B0399 was found to induce a decrease of the cytotoxic potential of the culture supernatant from the first stage of the colonic model system. The effects of K. marxianus B0399 on adhesion, immune function, and colonic microbiota demonstrate that this strain possesses a number of beneficial and strain-specific properties desirable for a microorganism considered for application as a probiotic. © 2012, American Society for Microbiology. Source


Trademark
Coop Italia | Date: 2014-08-29

Meat, fish, poultry and game; meat extracts; preserved, frozen, dried and cooked fruits and vegetables; jellies, jams, compotes; eggs; milk and milk products; edible oils and fats. Coffee, tea, cocoa and artificial coffee; rice; tapioca and sago; flour and preparations made from cereals; bread, pastry and confectionery; ices; sugar, honey, treacle; yeast, baking-powder; salt; mustard; vinegar, sauces (condiments); spices; ice. Grains and agricultural, horticultural and forestry products not included in other classes; live animals; fresh fruits and vegetables; seeds; natural plants and flowers; foodstuffs for animals, malt. Beers; mineral and aerated waters and other non-alcoholic beverages; fruit beverages and fruit juices; syrups and other preparations for making beverages. Advertising; business management; business administration; office functions.


Trademark
Coop Italia | Date: 2016-01-05

Meat, fish, poultry and game, not live; meat extracts; frozen, preserved, dried and cooked fruits and vegetables and dried vegetables, namely, dried legumes; jellies, jams, compotes; eggs; milk and milk products excluding ice cream, ice milk and frozen yogurt; milk products, namely, cheese, cottage cheese, fresh unripened cheese, ripened cheese, powdered milk, and yogurt; edible oils and fats. Coffee, artificial coffee, tea, iced tea, cocoa, cocoa powder; rice; tapioca and sago; flour and preparations made from cereals, namely, breakfast cereals, cereal bars, granola bars, high protein cereal bars, and preparations made from processed cereal grains, namely, pasta; bread and bread in the nature of bread rolls, unleavened bread, bread crumbs and pita bread; pastry, namely, pastries, pastry dough, macaroons in the nature of pastry; confectionery, namely, candy bars, chocolate bars, chocolate confectionery, candy and ice cream cakes; ices and ices in the nature of ice cream; sugar, honey, treacle; yeast, baking-powder; salt; mustard; vinegar; sauces, namely, soya sauce, pesto sauces, pasta sauce, ketchup, tomato sauce, mayonnaise sauce, barnaise sauce, tartar sauce; spices; ice. Live edible aquatic animals; animal foodstuffs and animal foodstuffs, namely, dog biscuits; edible chews for animals; meal for animals; pet food; bird food; wheat germ for animal consumption; malt for brewing and distilling. Beers; mineral and aerated waters and other non-alcoholic beverages, namely, alcohol-free beers, aerated water, flavored waters, seltzer water, soda water, sparkling water, spring water, still water, table water, mineral water, isotonic beverages, whey beverages, fruit-based beverages and carbonated fruit-based beverages, milk of almonds for beverages, tomato juice, vegetable juices, non-alcoholic aloe vera drinks, unfermented grape must, lithia water, sherbet beverages, smoothies, cola drinks, soft drinks flavored with chinotto, ginger ale; fruit beverages and juices; syrups and other preparations for making non-alcoholic beverages, namely, pastilles for effervescing beverages and powders for effervescing beverages. Advertising; business management; business administration; office functions.


Trademark
Coop Italia | Date: 2014-08-29

Meat, fish, poultry and game; meat extracts; preserved, frozen, dried and cooked fruits and vegetables; jellies, jams, compotes; eggs; milk and milk products; edible oils and fats. Coffee, tea, cocoa and artificial coffee; rice; tapioca and sago; flour and preparations made from cereals; bread, pastry and confectionery; ices; sugar, honey, treacle; yeast, baking-powder; salt; mustard; vinegar, sauces (condiments); spices; ice. Grains and agricultural, horticultural and forestry products not included in other classes; live animals; fresh fruits and vegetables; seeds; natural plants and flowers; foodstuffs for animals, malt. Beers; mineral and aerated waters and other non-alcoholic beverages; fruit beverages and fruit juices; syrups and other preparations for making beverages. Alcoholic beverages (except beers). Advertising; business management; business administration; office functions.

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