Chicago, IL, United States
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Sinayobye J.A.,Regional Alliance for Sustainable Development RASD | Sklar M.,Yeshiva University | Hoover D.R.,Yeshiva University | Shi Q.,NY Medical College | And 7 more authors.
Infectious Agents and Cancer | Year: 2014

Background: New World Health Organization guidelines recommend high-risk human papillomavirus (hrHPV) screen-and-treat strategies for cervical cancer prevention. We describe risk of, and risk factors for, testing hrHPV positive in a pilot study of hrHPV screen-and-treat conducted in Rwanda. Methods: A total of 2,964 women, 1,289 HIV-infected (HIV [+]) and 1,675 HIV-uninfected (HIV [-]), aged 30-60 years and living in Rwanda were enrolled in 2010. Cervical specimens were collected and tested by careHPV, a DNA test for a pool of 14 hrHPV types. Prevalence with binomial 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) and determinants of testing hrHPV positive were calculated. Results: hrHPV prevalence was higher in HIV [+] (31.8%, 95% CI = 29.2-34.4%) than HIV [-] women (8.2%, 95% CI = 6.7-9.8%; P < 0.0001). Among HIV [+] women, there was a significant trend (ptrend <0.001) of higher hrHPV prevalence with lower CD4 cell count, with the highest hrHPV prevalence among those with <200 CD4 cell counts (45.5%, 95% CI = 34.8-56.4%). In multivariate analysis of HIV [+] women, testing hrHPV positive was positively associated CD4 count of <200 cells/μL, history of 3 or more sexual partners, and history of using hormonal contraception, and negatively associated with older age. In HIV [-] women, testing hrHPV positive was negatively associated only with older age groups of 45-49 and 50-60 years and surprisingly was not associated with lifetime number of sexual partners. Conclusion: hrHPV prevalence is high in HIV [+], especially in women with the lowest CD4 cell counts, which may have implications for utilizing hrHPV-based screening strategies such as screen-and-treat in these high-risk subgroups. © 2014 Sinayobye et al.; licensee BioMed Central.


Ghaly R.F.,Ghaly Neurosurgical Associates | Ghaly R.F.,University of Illinois at Chicago | Ghaly R.F.,John Stroger Cook County Hospital | Candido K.D.,University of Illinois at Chicago | And 2 more authors.
Surgical Neurology International | Year: 2012

Background: Intracerebral hemorrhage is an infrequent but severe complication in pregnant women with hypertension. Case Description: We describe an atypical case of a patient with no risk factors who developed sudden eclampsia and spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage during the 34 th week of pregnancy. She underwent successful emergent Cesarean section followed by craniotomy. Both intraoperative surveillance and postoperative magnetic resonance angiographic examination of the cerebral vessels failed to identify an aneurysm, arteriovenous malformation, tumor, or leptomeningeal disease. Conclusion: We discuss the management of this case and review the literature regarding the threshold for which initiation of antihypertensive treatment is indicated in pregnant patients. Copyright © 2012 Ghaly RF.

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