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Yang W.-D.,Jinan University | Yang W.-D.,Control of Harmful Algal Blooms of Guangdong Higher Education Institute | Xie J.,Jinan University | van Rijssel M.,University of Groningen | And 4 more authors.
Harmful Algae | Year: 2010

Effects of toxic Alexandrium species on Prorocentrum donghaiense were studied in co-cultures and filtrates in order to shed some light on the competition between the co-occurring harmful algae. The three live cultures of Alexandrium tamarense and Alexandrium minutum negatively affected the growth of P. donghaiense, while only A. minutum was affected by P. donghaiense when they were in 1:3 ratio of cells. Each species was affected by the co-occurring algae as could be observed by microscopy. The allelopathic effects observed in co-culture did not correlate with the measured content of the intracellular PSP toxins but matched the observed hemolytic properties of the culture filtrates, suggesting that certain hemolytic substances other than PSP toxins are responsible for the allelopathic effect of Alexandrium. © 2010 Elsevier B.V. Source

Zou C.,Jinan University | Zou C.,Control of Harmful Algal Blooms of Guangdong Higher Education Institute | Ye R.-M.,Jinan University | Ye R.-M.,Control of Harmful Algal Blooms of Guangdong Higher Education Institute | And 11 more authors.
Marine Pollution Bulletin | Year: 2014

To explore the genetic diversity and paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP) toxin profile of the Alexandrium tamarense species complex along the coast of China, 67 strains of A. tamarense from the China Sea were collected and genetic diversity were analyzed based on the rDNA sequences. In addition, PSP toxin compositions and contents were detected by HPLC. According to the 5.8S rDNA and ITS, and LSU rDNA D1-D2 sequence, A. tamarense in the China Sea comprises at least Group IV and Group I ribotypes. In these Chinese strains, the toxins with the highest concentration in the profile were C1/2, gonyautoxins 1/4 (GTX1/4) and neosaxitoxin (NEO). However, the toxin profiles were atypical and C1/2 toxins were not detected in some strains. No strict correlation was observed between the PSP toxins profile and the geographical distribution. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. Source

Wu T.,Jinan University | Yan X.,Jinan University | Cai X.,Jinan University | Tan S.,Jinan University | And 6 more authors.
Applied Clay Science | Year: 2010

With the frequent occurrence and negative impacts of harmful algal blooms (HABs) on coastal countries throughout the world, it is urgently needed to find ways to control HABs effectively. Vermiculite, montmorillonite, palygorskite, and kaolin were modified with a Gemini surfactant to explore a new algaecide for controlling HABs. The removal efficiency of the modified clay minerals was evaluated with Chattonella marina, a typical HAB alga in China. Gemini modified vermiculite (G-VER) exhibited the highest removal rate against C. marina. When the concentration of G-VER (21.1% Gemini) was 6.5. mg/L, the removal rate reached to 100%. Dispersed in sea water for 72. h, only 3% of Gemini was released from the G-VER, indicating that the modified clay minerals had good stability in sea water and caused low impacts in the aquatic environment. G-VER is considered a potential algaecide with high efficiency and environmental safety. © 2010 Elsevier B.V. Source

Xu Y.-Y.,Jinan University | Xu Y.-Y.,Control of Harmful Algal Blooms of Guangdong Higher Education Institute | Liang J.-J.,Jinan University | Liang J.-J.,Control of Harmful Algal Blooms of Guangdong Higher Education Institute | And 8 more authors.
Aquaculture | Year: 2014

P-glycoprotein (P-gp), as an ATP-binding cassette transporter, can transport a variety of substrates across the cell membrane in human and animals, even in aquatic animals. Multixenobiotic resistance phenomenon (MXR) related to the P-gp has been identified and characterized in several aquatic organisms, however, the nature of this transporter and the structural basis for the resistance are still poorly understood. In this study, to provide an insight into the roles of P-gp in resistance of bivalve against environmental pollution and toxins, complete cDNA of P-gp gene in Crassostrea ariakensis was cloned and analyzed. The accumulation of okadaic acid (OA), a main component of diarrhetic shellfish poisoning (DSP) toxins, and expression of P-gp in gills, digestive glands and mantle of C. ariakensis, were detected upon exposure to Prorocentrum lima, a known producer of DSP toxins. The complete sequence of oyster P-gp showed a high identity to MDR/P-gp/ABCB proteins from other species and contained some classical features of ABCB transport proteins. Upon exposure to P. lima for 72. h, the OA level increased 2.5-fold in gills and 6.4-fold in digestive glands of C. ariakensis. Meanwhile, the expression of P-gp mRNA increased 2.4-fold in gills and decreased slightly in digestive glands. No significant difference in P-gp protein expression was found by western blot in all of the tissues analyzed in P. lima-exposed oysters. Taking all of our results into account, we speculate that P-gp likely plays a role in the response to DSP toxins in C. ariakensis. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. Source

Huang L.,Jinan University | Huang L.,Control of Harmful Algal Blooms of Guangdong Higher Education Institute | Wang J.,Jinan University | Wang J.,Control of Harmful Algal Blooms of Guangdong Higher Education Institute | And 10 more authors.
Fish and Shellfish Immunology | Year: 2014

Bivalves naturally exposed to toxic algae have mechanisms to prevent from harmful effects of diarrhetic shellfish poisoning (DSP) toxins. However, quite few studies have examined the mechanisms associated, and the information currently available is still insufficient. Multixenobiotic resistance (MXR) is ubiquitous in aquatic invertebrates and plays an important role in defense against xenobiotics. Here, to explore the roles of P-glycoprotein (P-gp) in the DSP toxins resistance in shellfish, complete cDNA of P-gp gene in the mussel Perna viridis was cloned and analyzed. The accumulation of okadaic acid (OA), a main component of DSP toxins, MXR activity and expression of P-gp in gills of P.viridis were detected after exposure to Prorocentrum lima, a dinoflagellate producing DSP toxins in the presence or absence of P-gp inhibitors PGP-4008, verapamil (VER) and cyclosporin A (CsA). The mussel P.viridis P-gp closely matches MDR/P-gp/ABCB protein from various organisms, having a typical sequence organization as full transporters from the ABCB family. After exposure to P.lima, OA accumulation, MXR activity and P-gp expression significantly increased in gills of P.viridis. The addition of P-gp-specific inhibitors PGP-4008 and VER decreased MXR activity induced by P.lima, but had no effect on the OA accumulation in gills of P.viridis. However, CsA, a broad-spectrum inhibitor of ABC transporter not only decreased MXR activity, but also increased OA accumulation in gills of P.viridis. Together with the ubiquitous presence of other ABC transporters such as MRP/ABCC in bivalves and potential compensatory mechanism in P-gp and MRP-mediated resistance, we speculated that besides P-gp, other ABC transporters, especially MRP might be involved in the resistance mechanisms to DSP toxins. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. Source

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