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Conthey, Switzerland

Socquet-Juglard D.,Research Station Agroscope Changins Wadenswil ACW | Socquet-Juglard D.,ETH Zurich | Duffy B.,Research Station Agroscope Changins Wadenswil ACW | Pothier J.F.,Research Station Agroscope Changins Wadenswil ACW | And 3 more authors.
Tree Genetics and Genomes | Year: 2013

Xanthomonas arboricola pv. pruni causes bacterial spot of stone fruit resulting in severe yield losses in apricot production systems. Present on all continents, the pathogen is regulated in Europe as a quarantine organism. Host resistance is an important component of integrated pest management; however, little work has been done describing resistance against X. arboricola pv. pruni. In this study, an apricot population derived from the cross "Harostar" × "Rouge de Mauves" was used to construct two parental genetic maps and to perform a quantitative trait locus analysis of resistance to X. arboricola pv. pruni. A population of 101 F1 individuals was inoculated twice for two consecutive years in a quarantine greenhouse with a mixture of bacterial strains, and disease incidence and resistance index data were collected. A major QTL for disease incidence and resistance index accounting respectively for 53 % (LOD score of 15. 43) and 46 % (LOD score of 12. 26) of the phenotypic variation was identified at the same position on linkage group 5 of "Rouge de Mauves." Microsatellite marker UDAp-452 co-segregated with the resistance, and two flanking microsatellites, namely BPPCT037 and BPPCT038A, were identified. When dividing the population according to the alleles of UDAp-452, the subgroup with unfavorable allele had a disease incidence of 32. 6 % whereas the group with favorable allele had a disease incidence of 21 %, leading to a reduction of 35. 6 % in disease incidence. This study is a first step towards the marker-assisted breeding of new apricot varieties with an increased tolerance to X. arboricola pv. pruni. © 2012 Springer-Verlag. Source


Bordonaba J.G.,Cranfield University | Crespo P.,Conthey Research Center | Terry L.A.,Cranfield University
Food Chemistry | Year: 2011

Research focused on identification and quantification of anthocyanins from berries and other fruits is gaining importance due to the observed inverse relationship between anthocyanin intake and the incidence of certain diseases. Separation and quantification of these compounds is mainly achieved on reverse phase HPLC coupled to different detection systems using mostly acetonitrile as the mobile phase of choice. Nevertheless, the scientific community recently faced a worldwide shortage of this solvent which resulted in prices soaring dramatically. In this context, the present study describes the comparison and validation of a newly developed methanol-based method for the identification and quantification of major berry anthocyanins using standard HPLC coupled to photo diode array detection. Moreover, two different commercially available stationary phases were tested. The methanol-based method developed herein showed high repeatability (R.S.D <1.3%), rapidity (<35 min) and accuracy and therefore may be suitable for routine quantification of berry anthocyanins. Comparison with an earlier established acetonitrile-based method showed that despite differences in absolute concentrations between both methods the determined anthocyanin concentrations were highly correlated (r > 0.95). Method validation was further achieved by elucidating differences in the anthocyanin profile between different blackcurrant and strawberry cultivars. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. Source


Michel V.V.,Conthey Research Center | Lazzeri L.,Italian Agricultural Research Council
Acta Horticulturae | Year: 2010

Corky root of tomato, caused by Pyrenochaeta lycopersici, is a major soilborne disease in greenhouse tomato production of Switzerland. The methods for its control alternative to methyl bromide, which is prohibited in Switzerland already for 20 years, are steam-sterilization of soil, grafting on resistant rootstocks, and soilless productions systems. These methods are efficient but present also some inconvenients (high energy input, partial loss of resistance, high investment costs) and search for other methods to control corky root are needed. The use of green manures, especially with biocidal cruciferous plants (biofumigation), a product based on defatted mustard seed meal (biofumigation pellets), and a chitin-containing organic fertiliser were tested to control corky root in pot and glass house trials. The use of resistant rootstocks was another factor included in these studies. Incorporating green manures one week before planting a susceptible tomato cultivar was the most efficient treatment in the pot trial. Biocidal mustard plant incorporation achieved the same result as steam soil sterilization. Non-biocidal plants such as canola had a slightly lower efficacy. Also both organic amendments tested were less efficient than the green manures but better than the control treatment. In the glass house trials, soil was amended with the chitin-containing fertiliser for three years. Grafted and non-grafted susceptible tomatoes were planted and the impact on yield and root health was assessed. Grafting on resistant rootstocks gave a significant higher yield in two of three years. Root health of the resistant rootstocks was significantly better in all three years compared to the nongrafted tomato roots. In contrast, the organic soil amendment did not improve both plant yield and root health. Source


Crespo P.,Conthey Research Center | Gine Bordonaba J.,Cranfield University | Terry L.A.,Cranfield University | Carlen C.,Conthey Research Center
Food Chemistry | Year: 2010

Individual sugars, organic acids, anthocyanins and vitamin C were quantified in strawberry fruits of four newly-bred cultivars grown at two production sites in Switzerland with different soil, climatic conditions and altitudes (1060 and 480 m above sea level). All the measured compounds were significantly influenced by genotype. Pelargonidin-3-glucoside was the main anthocyanin present in all cultivars, while the presence of other pelargonidin derivatives was genotype-dependent. Differences of about 2-fold were observed among the studied cultivars for their vitamin C content. In the mountain region, where plants produced a higher fruit yield over a shorter period, the concentration of both health and taste-related compounds was detrimentally affected. In particular, the vitamin C content in the fruits was negatively related to the average yield per day. However, the compositional variations of strawberry fruits in response to different production sites were genotype specific. Within the four cultivars studied, cv. Antea was most affected by the production site, showing generally lower contents of all analysed compounds when cultivated at higher altitudes, whereas cv. Clery seemed to have the more consistent chemical composition, regardless of production site. The results presented in this work corroborate the dominant role of strawberry genotype over environmental factors. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. Source

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