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Vivan M.,Contestado University | Kunz A.,Pesquisador da Embrapa Suinos e Aves | Stolberg J.,Campus Universitario Of Concordia | Perdomo C.,Campus Universitario Of Concordia | Techio V.H.,Campus Universitario Of Concordia
Revista Brasileira de Engenharia Agricola e Ambiental | Year: 2010

Swine production is considered an activity with a high environmental impact, due to the presence of a high number of contaminants in the effluents that come out from the piggery. In this study the feasibility of a combined process biodigestor and stabilization ponds (anaerobic, facultative and maturation) connected in sequence fed with sludge from a swine manure treatment unit was evaluated. The system showed itsetf as efficient in the removal of organic matter, however it presented some limitations in removing nutrients, especially nitrogen, mainly due to the contribution of volatilization of ammonia.

Dal-Cim T.,Federal University of Santa Catarina | Ludka F.K.,Federal University of Santa Catarina | Ludka F.K.,Contestado University | Martins W.C.,Federal University of Santa Catarina | And 5 more authors.
Journal of Neurochemistry | Year: 2013

Guanosine (GUO) is an endogenous modulator of glutamatergic excitotoxicity and has been shown to promote neuroprotection in in vivo and in vitro models of neurotoxicity. This study was designed to understand the neuroprotective mechanism of GUO against oxidative damage promoted by oxygen/glucose deprivation and reoxygenation (OGD). GUO (100 μM) reduced reactive oxygen species production and prevented mitochondrial membrane depolarization induced by OGD. GUO also exhibited anti-inflammatory actions as inhibition of nuclear factor kappa B activation and reduction of inducible nitric oxide synthase induction induced by OGD. These GUO neuroprotective effects were mediated by adenosine A1 receptor, phosphatidylinositol-3 kinase and MAPK/ERK. Furthermore, GUO recovered the impairment of glutamate uptake caused by OGD, an effect that occurred via a Pertussis toxin-sensitive G-protein-coupled signaling, blockade of adenosine A2A receptors (A2AR), but not via A 1 receptor. The modulation of glutamate uptake by GUO also involved MAPK/ERK activation. In conclusion, GUO, by modulating adenosine receptor function and activating MAPK/ERK, affords neuroprotection of hippocampal slices subjected to OGD by a mechanism that implicates the following: (i) prevention of mitochondrial membrane depolarization, (ii) reduction of oxidative stress, (iii) regulation of inflammation by inhibition of nuclear factor kappa B and inducible nitric oxide synthase, and (iv) promoting glutamate uptake. Guanosine (GUO) promotes neuroprotection against oxygen and glucose deprivation in hippocampal slices via a mechanism that involves modulation of adenosine receptors and activation of PI3K/AKT and MAPK/ERK. These signaling pathways are implicated in the prevention of mitochondrial membrane depolarization, reduction of oxidative stress, regulation of inflammation by inhibition of NF-κB and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), and the promotion of glutamate uptake. EAAT: excitatory amino acid transporter, ROS: reactive oxygen species. Read the Editorial Highlight for this article on doi: 10.1111/jnc.12328. © 2013 International Society for Neurochemistry.

Cunha A.,Embrapa Swine and Poultry | Feddern V.,Embrapa Swine and Poultry | De Pra M.C.,Contestado University | Higarashi M.M.,Embrapa Swine and Poultry | And 2 more authors.
Fuel | Year: 2013

This study optimized the conversion of animal fat wastes into ethylic biodiesel by alkali-catalyzed process under mild conditions. A mix of chicken and swine fat residues was used as feedstock for biodiesel production. A full 33 factorial design was used to optimize process parameters for maximum fatty acid ethyl esters yield. Factors were evaluated at three different levels: temperature (30; 50; 70 °C), ethanol:fat molar ratio (6:1; 7:1; 8:1) and catalyst concentration (0.44; 0.88; 1.32 wt.%). Effects of the process variables were analyzed using response surface methodology. Moreover, optimum conditions were applied in a bench-scale reactor and biofuel produced was characterized. It was observed that at high temperatures (50 and 70 °C), phase separation between biodiesel and glycerol was impaired. Although high conversion was achieved (96.2%) at 70 °C, this condition is not recommended because no spontaneous phase separation was verified. On the other hand, 30 °C was identified as the best temperature for biodiesel ethanolysis, using 0.96 wt.% catalyst and 7:1 ethanol:fat molar ratio. With these conditions, it is possible to achieve around 83% conversion. Despite the oxidative stability and total glycerin, biodiesel measured properties agreed with quality requirements established by Official Regulations (ASTM 6751 and EN 14214). © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

De Pra M.C.,Contestado University | Kunz A.,Embrapa Swine and Poultry | Bortoli M.,Federal University of Santa Catarina | Perondi T.,University of West Santa Catarina | Chini A.,Contestado University
Journal of Chemical Technology and Biotechnology | Year: 2012

BACKGROUND: Considering biological nitrogen removal, the partial nitritation connected with the anaerobic ammonium oxidation (anammox) process is a promising alternative for nitrogen elimination at high loading rates. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the establishment and operation of a partial nitritation process in an airlift reactor with simultaneous removal of total organic carbon and suspended solids using swine wastewater. RESULTS: The partial nitritation reactor was inoculated with a nitrifying sludge at 2.1 gTSS L-1 and fed with an UASB reactor effluent. High organic carbon loading rates, above 2 kgTOC m-3 d-1 have been shown to be potential inhibitors of the partial nitritation process due to competition between autotrophic and heterotrophic bacteria. In this study, the partial nitritation process was established using undiluted swine wastewater, with HRT of 24 h, 1.84 mgO2 L-1 (SD = 0.41) DO, loading rate of 1.14 gTOC L-1 d-1 and 0.91 gN-NH3 L-1 d-1 for more than 100 consecutive days. At the same time, the system proved to be an effective tool in TOC and TSS removal, reaching 84.9% (SD = 9.3) and 83.1% (SD = 0.1), respectively. CONCLUSION: This result enhances partial nitritation application as a technology for high load nitrogen converting, and allows the possibility of connection with anammox reactors. © 2012 Society of Chemical Industry.

Elpino-Campos A.,Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul | Elpino-Campos A.,Contestado University
Acta Ethologica | Year: 2012

Of the 15 species of passion vines recorded for the Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil, nine are used by Heliconius erato phyllis (Fabricius, 1775). The larvae of this species feed preferentially on Passiflora misera H. B. K., which confers greater performance despite presenting smaller amounts of nutrients than other host plants. Thus, the performance associated with the consumption of a passion vine is possibly related not only to its nutritional content but also to the morphological and behavioral mechanisms involved in the feeding. In this study, the difficulties in accessing food imposed by the hosts (P. misera, Passiflora suberosa L., Passiflora caerulea L., Passiflora edulis Sims, and Passiflora alata Dryand.) were evaluated. Focal observations were performed every 2 min during 6-h sessions (sequential sampling), and the relative time spent for different behaviors (resting, feeding, walking, tasting, and vein cutting) was quantified on both young and old leaves. Larvae devoted more time feeding on P. misera in most cases. Larvae observed on P. alata devoted more to time resting and less time feeding, performing one or two meals of small duration, every 6 h. First instar caterpillars on old leaves of P. suberosa and P. caerulea spent more time walking, searching for a favorable feeding site. The hardness of leaves may be a limiting factor for the initial instars in this heliconian. © 2011 Springer-Verlag and ISPA.

Assini F.L.,Contestado University | Fabricio E.J.,Contestado University | Lang K.L.,Contestado University
Revista Brasileira de Plantas Medicinais | Year: 2013

Solidago chilensis Meyen (Asteraceae) is a species native to South America (Brazil), found especially in the south region of Brazil, where it is commonly known as "arnica-do-mato". In folk medicine, it has been used as diuretic, healing and anti-inûammatory. In the present study, the pharmacological effects of aqueous extracts from roots of S. chilensis were assessed in vivo in experimental models for antidepressant, anti-inflammatory and locomotor-type activity. The extract (25, 50 and 250 mg kg-1) was administered by the oral route 30 minutes prior to behavioral tests. Results indicate that, at the employed levels, aqueous extract from S. chilensis did not show antidepressant-type activity although it induced significant analgesic and anti-inflammatory effects. A reduction in the locomotor activity was noted at the highest administered level (250 mg kg-1), suggesting an effect on the central nervous system. In conclusion, results agree with the literature about analgesic and anti-inflammatory effects of this plant, also suggesting an activity of S. chilensis extract on the central nervous system. These remarks, however, do not exclude a possible peripheral muscular relaxing effect of the extract.

Headley S.A.,St. Matthew's University | Gillen M.A.,St. Matthew's University | Sanches A.W.D.,St. Matthew's University | Sanches A.W.D.,Contestado University | Satti M.Z.,St. Matthew's University
Journal of Helminthology | Year: 2012

The occurrence of platynosomiasis and intestinal sparganosis is described in feral cats from Grand Cayman, Cayman Islands. Spirometra spp. was observed within the intestine of 18.18% (10/55) of cats; 1.18% (1/55) of cats demonstrated gross and histological manifestation of parasitism by Platynosomum fastosum, but 14.5% (8/55) of cats had the characteristic pathological manifestations of P. fastosum-induced intrahepatic cholangitis without the concomitant presence of the intraductal trematode. Combined parasitism (Spirometra spp. and P. fastosum) was observed in 9.09% (5/55) of feral cats. Significant pathological findings were only associated with the hepatic fluke, P. fastosum, and were grossly characterized by moderate hepatomegaly with enlarged and dilated bile ducts. Examples of cestodes with morphological features characteristic of Spirometra spp. were observed within the small intestine without any associated pathological lesion. The histopathological evaluation of liver fragments revealed chronic intrahepatic cholangitis with and without the associated intraductal trematode, and was characterized by marked periductal fibrosis, adenomatous proliferation of bile duct epithelium, dilation of intrahepatic bile ducts and portal accumulations of inflammatory cells. The occurrence of the cestode in feral cats coupled with factors that are unique to Grand Cayman makes this island the ideal location for sporadic cases of human sparganosis. © 2011 Cambridge University Press.

Bolivar L.E.P.,Contestado University | Alexandre Da Silva G.,Contestado University
CHILECON 2015 - 2015 IEEE Chilean Conference on Electrical, Electronics Engineering, Information and Communication Technologies, Proceedings of IEEE Chilecon 2015 | Year: 2015

In this article, it is shown a solar radiation tracking system, in which is used an optical sensor TAOS TCS-230 for measuring the solar radiation, a microcontroller from Microchip PIC 16F877 family and an embedded system Raspberry Pi model B which processes the measurements and transmits to a UDP server. The system stores the data in a database to lock up the integrity of such information, the data reports are also performed. The information is available for solar studies and mapping solar incidence. The microcontroller reads the information from the optical sensor, through out communication I2C the Raspberry Pi receives the microcontroller data, after that it sends with UDP protocol for a computer with LabVIEW software and database, for the possibility to view reports and store in a local database and remote MySQL. © 2015 IEEE.

Diabetes mellitus is a chronic disease characterized by elevated blood glucose (hyperglycemia) and is considered a disturbance in the metabolism of carbohydrates, lipids and proteins, due to lack of insulin produced by the pancreas and / or reduction in its action. This condition is the sixth leading cause of hospitalization as primary diagnosis and contributes up to 50% to other causes such as heart diseases, stroke and hypertension, among others. An alternative treatment, which in recent years had an increase in interest and research, is the herbal medicine, which can be equalled and added to conventional therapy. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate the use of medicinal plants in treating individuals with diabetes mellitus in the city of Herval D' Oeste, Santa Catarina State, Brazil and also present the importance of safe intake of medicinal plants. The obtained results showed that consumption of medicinal plants occurs erroneously, where only 19% of the cited plants had scientific evidence for diabetes therapy. In addition, most users of medicinal plants (89.4%) choose the plant species by family culture. Thus, further research focused on this therapy is needed, as well as further information to the public and health professionals regarding the correct use of plants, preparation and quantity to be ingested.

It is common the existence of a relation supports between culture and development. It already has many works if dedicated to the subject. In this text the claim had been to contribute in the discussion, rescuing some theoretical origins of the relation between economy, culture and development, present in the different theoretical currents. There is used a synthesis of the theories of the development, from which there are detached the theoretical conceptions that justify such a relation. We conclude that the definition of development, when differentiated from economic growth, and contemplated the notion of structural changes within economic, social, cultural and technological changes, there is not only a relationship between economy, culture and development. The economic dimension and culture are the constituent elements of development processes, along with the social, political, spatial, ecological and technological developments.

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