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Cacador, Brazil
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Molz S.,Federal University of Santa Catarina | Molz S.,Contestado University | Dal-Cim T.,Federal University of Santa Catarina | Budni J.,Federal University of Santa Catarina | And 7 more authors.
Journal of Neuroscience Research | Year: 2011

Excitotoxicity and cell death induced by glutamate are involved in many neurodegenerative disorders. We have previously demonstrated that excitotoxicity induced by millimolar concentrations of glutamate in hippocampal slices involves apoptotic features and glutamate-induced glutamate release. Guanosine, an endogenous guanine nucleoside, prevents excitotoxicty by its ability to modulate glutamate transport. In this study, we have evaluated the neuroprotective effect of guanosine against glutamate-induced toxicity in hippocampal slices and the mechanism involved in such an effect. We have found that guanosine (100 μM) was neuroprotective against 1 mM glutamate-induced cell death through the inhibition of glutamate release induced by glutamate. Guanosine also induced the phosphorylation and, thus, activation of protein kinase B (PKB/Akt), a downstream target of phosphatidylinositol-3 kinase (PI3K), as well as phosphorylation of glycogen synthase kinase 3β, which has been reported to be inactivated by Akt after phosphorylation at Ser9. Glutamate treated hippocampal slices showed increased inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) expression that was prevented by guanosine. Slices preincubated with SNAP (an NO donor), inhibited the protective effect of guanosine. LY294002 (30 μM), a PI3K inhibitor, attenuated guanosine-induced neuroprotection, guanosine prevention of glutamate release, and guanosine-induced GSK3β Ser9 phosphorylation but not guanosine reduction of glutamate-induced iNOS expression. Taken together, the results of this study show that guanosine protects hippocampal slices by a mechanism that involves the PI3K/Akt/GSK3β Ser9 pathway and prevention of glutamate-induced glutamate release. Furthermore, guanosine also reduces glutamate-induced iNOS by a PI3K/Akt-independent mechanism. © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

Ludka F.K.,Federal University of Santa Catarina | Ludka F.K.,Contestado University | Dal-Cim T.,Federal University of Santa Catarina | Binder L.B.,Federal University of Santa Catarina | And 3 more authors.
Molecular Neurobiology | Year: 2016

Atorvastatin has been shown to exert a neuroprotective action by counteracting glutamatergic toxicity. Recently, we have shown atorvastatin also exerts an antidepressant-like effect that depends on both glutamatergic and serotonergic systems modulation. Excitotoxicity is involved in several brain disorders including depression; thus, it is suggested that antidepressants may target glutamatergic system as a final common pathway. In this study, a comparison of the mechanisms involved in the putative neuroprotective effect of a repetitive atorvastatin or fluoxetine treatment against glutamate toxicity in hippocampal slices was performed. Adult Swiss mice were treated with atorvastatin (10 mg/kg, p.o.) or fluoxetine (10 mg/kg, p.o.), once a day during seven consecutive days. On the eighth day, animals were killed and hippocampal slices were obtained and subjected to an in vitro protocol of glutamate toxicity. An acute treatment of atorvastatin or fluoxetine was not neuroprotective; however, the repeated atorvastatin or fluoxetine treatment prevented the decrease in cellular viability induced by glutamate in hippocampal slices. The loss of cellular viability induced by glutamate was accompanied by increased D-aspartate release, increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) and nitric oxide (NO) production, and impaired mitochondrial membrane potential. Atorvastatin or fluoxetine repeated treatment also presented an antidepressant-like effect in the tail suspension test. Atorvastatin or fluoxetine treatment was effective in protecting mice hippocampal slices from glutamate toxicity by preventing the oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction. © 2016 Springer Science+Business Media New York

Vivan M.,Contestado University | Kunz A.,Pesquisador da Embrapa Suinos e Aves | Stolberg J.,Campus Universitario Of Concordia | Perdomo C.,Campus Universitario Of Concordia | Techio V.H.,Campus Universitario Of Concordia
Revista Brasileira de Engenharia Agricola e Ambiental | Year: 2010

Swine production is considered an activity with a high environmental impact, due to the presence of a high number of contaminants in the effluents that come out from the piggery. In this study the feasibility of a combined process biodigestor and stabilization ponds (anaerobic, facultative and maturation) connected in sequence fed with sludge from a swine manure treatment unit was evaluated. The system showed itsetf as efficient in the removal of organic matter, however it presented some limitations in removing nutrients, especially nitrogen, mainly due to the contribution of volatilization of ammonia.

Dos Santos K.C.,Federal University of Paraná | Borges T.V.,Contestado University | Olescowicz G.,Contestado University | Ludka F.K.,Contestado University | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology | Year: 2016

Objectives To investigate whether Passiflora actinia hydroalcoholic extract and its major constituent, isovitexin, protect mice hippocampal brain slices from glutamate-induced neurotoxicity. Methods Neuroprotective effect of the extract against glutamate-induced excitotoxicity (10 mm) was evaluated through cell viability of hippocampal slices. The extract or its flavonoids were directly applied to hippocampal slices and then subjected to glutamate-induced toxicity. Alternatively, hippocampal slices from extract-treated mice were also subjected to the same toxicity protocol. Key findings Mice supplementation with the extract protected hippocampal slices from in-vitro neurotoxicity. When directly applied to hippocampal slices, the extract showed a higher neuroprotective potential than a commercial dry extract of Passiflora incarnata, which was related to P. actinia extract which had higher isovitexin and total flavonoid content expressed as isovitexin. Isovitexin, but not apigenin, induced a similar neuroprotective response when applied alone, at a concentration equivalent to that found in the extract. Conclusions This study highlights new neuropharmacological activity of the Passiflora genus, suggesting that it can act as modulator of the glutamatergic system. The search for improved pharmacotherapies with novel mechanisms of action has been shown of great importance for the treatment of resistant neurological and psychiatric disorders. © 2016 Royal Pharmaceutical Society.

Dal-Cim T.,Federal University of Santa Catarina | Ludka F.K.,Federal University of Santa Catarina | Ludka F.K.,Contestado University | Martins W.C.,Federal University of Santa Catarina | And 5 more authors.
Journal of Neurochemistry | Year: 2013

Guanosine (GUO) is an endogenous modulator of glutamatergic excitotoxicity and has been shown to promote neuroprotection in in vivo and in vitro models of neurotoxicity. This study was designed to understand the neuroprotective mechanism of GUO against oxidative damage promoted by oxygen/glucose deprivation and reoxygenation (OGD). GUO (100 μM) reduced reactive oxygen species production and prevented mitochondrial membrane depolarization induced by OGD. GUO also exhibited anti-inflammatory actions as inhibition of nuclear factor kappa B activation and reduction of inducible nitric oxide synthase induction induced by OGD. These GUO neuroprotective effects were mediated by adenosine A1 receptor, phosphatidylinositol-3 kinase and MAPK/ERK. Furthermore, GUO recovered the impairment of glutamate uptake caused by OGD, an effect that occurred via a Pertussis toxin-sensitive G-protein-coupled signaling, blockade of adenosine A2A receptors (A2AR), but not via A 1 receptor. The modulation of glutamate uptake by GUO also involved MAPK/ERK activation. In conclusion, GUO, by modulating adenosine receptor function and activating MAPK/ERK, affords neuroprotection of hippocampal slices subjected to OGD by a mechanism that implicates the following: (i) prevention of mitochondrial membrane depolarization, (ii) reduction of oxidative stress, (iii) regulation of inflammation by inhibition of nuclear factor kappa B and inducible nitric oxide synthase, and (iv) promoting glutamate uptake. Guanosine (GUO) promotes neuroprotection against oxygen and glucose deprivation in hippocampal slices via a mechanism that involves modulation of adenosine receptors and activation of PI3K/AKT and MAPK/ERK. These signaling pathways are implicated in the prevention of mitochondrial membrane depolarization, reduction of oxidative stress, regulation of inflammation by inhibition of NF-κB and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), and the promotion of glutamate uptake. EAAT: excitatory amino acid transporter, ROS: reactive oxygen species. Read the Editorial Highlight for this article on doi: 10.1111/jnc.12328. © 2013 International Society for Neurochemistry.

Cunha A.,Embrapa Swine and Poultry | Feddern V.,Embrapa Swine and Poultry | De Pra M.C.,Contestado University | Higarashi M.M.,Embrapa Swine and Poultry | And 2 more authors.
Fuel | Year: 2013

This study optimized the conversion of animal fat wastes into ethylic biodiesel by alkali-catalyzed process under mild conditions. A mix of chicken and swine fat residues was used as feedstock for biodiesel production. A full 33 factorial design was used to optimize process parameters for maximum fatty acid ethyl esters yield. Factors were evaluated at three different levels: temperature (30; 50; 70 °C), ethanol:fat molar ratio (6:1; 7:1; 8:1) and catalyst concentration (0.44; 0.88; 1.32 wt.%). Effects of the process variables were analyzed using response surface methodology. Moreover, optimum conditions were applied in a bench-scale reactor and biofuel produced was characterized. It was observed that at high temperatures (50 and 70 °C), phase separation between biodiesel and glycerol was impaired. Although high conversion was achieved (96.2%) at 70 °C, this condition is not recommended because no spontaneous phase separation was verified. On the other hand, 30 °C was identified as the best temperature for biodiesel ethanolysis, using 0.96 wt.% catalyst and 7:1 ethanol:fat molar ratio. With these conditions, it is possible to achieve around 83% conversion. Despite the oxidative stability and total glycerin, biodiesel measured properties agreed with quality requirements established by Official Regulations (ASTM 6751 and EN 14214). © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

De Pra M.C.,Contestado University | Kunz A.,Embrapa Swine and Poultry | Bortoli M.,Federal University of Santa Catarina | Perondi T.,University of West Santa Catarina | Chini A.,Contestado University
Journal of Chemical Technology and Biotechnology | Year: 2012

BACKGROUND: Considering biological nitrogen removal, the partial nitritation connected with the anaerobic ammonium oxidation (anammox) process is a promising alternative for nitrogen elimination at high loading rates. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the establishment and operation of a partial nitritation process in an airlift reactor with simultaneous removal of total organic carbon and suspended solids using swine wastewater. RESULTS: The partial nitritation reactor was inoculated with a nitrifying sludge at 2.1 gTSS L-1 and fed with an UASB reactor effluent. High organic carbon loading rates, above 2 kgTOC m-3 d-1 have been shown to be potential inhibitors of the partial nitritation process due to competition between autotrophic and heterotrophic bacteria. In this study, the partial nitritation process was established using undiluted swine wastewater, with HRT of 24 h, 1.84 mgO2 L-1 (SD = 0.41) DO, loading rate of 1.14 gTOC L-1 d-1 and 0.91 gN-NH3 L-1 d-1 for more than 100 consecutive days. At the same time, the system proved to be an effective tool in TOC and TSS removal, reaching 84.9% (SD = 9.3) and 83.1% (SD = 0.1), respectively. CONCLUSION: This result enhances partial nitritation application as a technology for high load nitrogen converting, and allows the possibility of connection with anammox reactors. © 2012 Society of Chemical Industry.

Elpino-Campos A.,Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul | Elpino-Campos A.,Contestado University
Acta Ethologica | Year: 2012

Of the 15 species of passion vines recorded for the Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil, nine are used by Heliconius erato phyllis (Fabricius, 1775). The larvae of this species feed preferentially on Passiflora misera H. B. K., which confers greater performance despite presenting smaller amounts of nutrients than other host plants. Thus, the performance associated with the consumption of a passion vine is possibly related not only to its nutritional content but also to the morphological and behavioral mechanisms involved in the feeding. In this study, the difficulties in accessing food imposed by the hosts (P. misera, Passiflora suberosa L., Passiflora caerulea L., Passiflora edulis Sims, and Passiflora alata Dryand.) were evaluated. Focal observations were performed every 2 min during 6-h sessions (sequential sampling), and the relative time spent for different behaviors (resting, feeding, walking, tasting, and vein cutting) was quantified on both young and old leaves. Larvae devoted more time feeding on P. misera in most cases. Larvae observed on P. alata devoted more to time resting and less time feeding, performing one or two meals of small duration, every 6 h. First instar caterpillars on old leaves of P. suberosa and P. caerulea spent more time walking, searching for a favorable feeding site. The hardness of leaves may be a limiting factor for the initial instars in this heliconian. © 2011 Springer-Verlag and ISPA.

Assini F.L.,Contestado University | Fabricio E.J.,Contestado University | Lang K.L.,Contestado University
Revista Brasileira de Plantas Medicinais | Year: 2013

Solidago chilensis Meyen (Asteraceae) is a species native to South America (Brazil), found especially in the south region of Brazil, where it is commonly known as "arnica-do-mato". In folk medicine, it has been used as diuretic, healing and anti-inûammatory. In the present study, the pharmacological effects of aqueous extracts from roots of S. chilensis were assessed in vivo in experimental models for antidepressant, anti-inflammatory and locomotor-type activity. The extract (25, 50 and 250 mg kg-1) was administered by the oral route 30 minutes prior to behavioral tests. Results indicate that, at the employed levels, aqueous extract from S. chilensis did not show antidepressant-type activity although it induced significant analgesic and anti-inflammatory effects. A reduction in the locomotor activity was noted at the highest administered level (250 mg kg-1), suggesting an effect on the central nervous system. In conclusion, results agree with the literature about analgesic and anti-inflammatory effects of this plant, also suggesting an activity of S. chilensis extract on the central nervous system. These remarks, however, do not exclude a possible peripheral muscular relaxing effect of the extract.

Bolivar L.E.P.,Contestado University | Alexandre Da Silva G.,Contestado University
CHILECON 2015 - 2015 IEEE Chilean Conference on Electrical, Electronics Engineering, Information and Communication Technologies, Proceedings of IEEE Chilecon 2015 | Year: 2015

In this article, it is shown a solar radiation tracking system, in which is used an optical sensor TAOS TCS-230 for measuring the solar radiation, a microcontroller from Microchip PIC 16F877 family and an embedded system Raspberry Pi model B which processes the measurements and transmits to a UDP server. The system stores the data in a database to lock up the integrity of such information, the data reports are also performed. The information is available for solar studies and mapping solar incidence. The microcontroller reads the information from the optical sensor, through out communication I2C the Raspberry Pi receives the microcontroller data, after that it sends with UDP protocol for a computer with LabVIEW software and database, for the possibility to view reports and store in a local database and remote MySQL. © 2015 IEEE.

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