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Saint-André-de-la-Marche, France

Tang Y.,New York State Department of Health | LeMaster D.M.,New York State Department of Health | Nauwelaers G.,University of Rennes 1 | Nauwelaers G.,Contaminant Toxicology Unit | And 3 more authors.
Journal of Biological Chemistry | Year: 2012

2-Amino-9H-pyrido[2,3-b]indole (AαC) is a carcinogenic heterocyclic aromatic amine (HAA) that arises in tobacco smoke. UDP-glucuronosyltransferases (UGTs) are important enzymes that detoxicate many procarcinogens, including HAAs. UGTs compete with P450 enzymes, which bioactivate HAAs by N-hydroxylation of the exocyclic amine group; the resultant N-hydroxy-HAA metabolites form covalent adducts with DNA. We have characterized the UGT-catalyzed metabolic products of AαC and the genotoxic metabolite 2-hydroxyamino-9H-pyrido[2,3- b]indole (HONH-AαC) formed with human liver microsomes, recombinant human UGT isoforms, and human hepatocytes. The structures of the metabolites were elucidated by 1H NMR and mass spectrometry. AαC and HONH-AαC underwent glucuronidation by UGTs to form, respectively, N2-(β- D-glucosidurony1)-2-amino-9H-pyrido[2,3-b]indole (AαC-N2-Gl) and N2-(β-D-glucosidurony1)-2-hydroxyamino-9H-pyrido[2,3-b] indole (AαC-HON2-Gl). HONH-AαC also underwent glucuronidation to form a novel O-linked glucuronide conjugate, O-(β-D-glucosidurony1)-2-hydroxyamino-9H-pyrido[2,3-b]indole (AαC-HN2-O-Gl). AαC-HN2-O-Gl is a biologically reactive metabolite and binds to calf thymus DNA (pH 5.0 or 7.0) to form the N-(deoxyguanosin-8-yl)-AαC adduct at 20-50-fold higher levels than the adduct levels formed with HONH-AαC. Major UGT isoforms were examined for their capacity to metabolize AαC and HONH-AαC. UGT1A4 was the most catalytically efficient enzyme (Vmax/Km) at forming AαC-N2-Gl (0.67 μl·min-1·mg of protein-1), and UGT1A9 was most catalytically efficient at forming AαC-HN-O-Gl (77.1 μl·min-1·mg of protein -1), whereas UGT1A1 was most efficient at forming AαC-HON 2-Gl (5.0 μl·min-1·mg of protein -1). Human hepatocytes produced AαC-N2-Gl and AαC-HN2-O-Gl in abundant quantities, but AαC-HON 2-Gl was a minor product. Thus, UGTs, usually important enzymes in the detoxication of many procarcinogens, serve as a mechanism of bioactivation of HONH-AαC. © 2012 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

Zeller P.,Contaminant Toxicology Unit | Quenault H.,Viral Genetics and Biosecurity Unit | Huguet A.,Contaminant Toxicology Unit | Blanchard Y.,Viral Genetics and Biosecurity Unit | Fessard V.,Contaminant Toxicology Unit
Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety | Year: 2012

Microcystins (MCs) are cyclic hepatotoxins produced by various species of cyanobacteria. Their structure includes two variable amino acids (AA) giving rise to more than 90 MC variants, however most of the studies to date have focused on the most toxic variant: microcystin LR (MC-LR). Ingestion is the major route of human exposure to MCs and several . in vivo studies have demonstrated macroscopic effects on the gastro-intestinal tract. However, little information exists concerning the pathways affected by MC variants on intestinal cells. In the current study, we have investigated the effects of MC-RR and MC-LR on the human intestinal cell line Caco-2 using a non-selective method and compared their response at the pangenomic scale. The cells were incubated for 4. h or 24. h with a range of non-toxic concentrations of MC-RR or MC-LR. Minimal effects were observed after short term exposures (4. h) to either MC variant. In contrast, dose dependent modulations of gene transcription levels were observed with MC-RR and MC-LR after 24. h. The transcriptomic profiles induced by MC-RR were quite similar to those induced by MC-LR, suggestive of a largely common mechanism of toxicity. However, changes in total gene expression were more pronounced following exposure to MC-LR compared to MC-RR, as revealed by functional annotation. MC-LR affected two principal pathways, the oxidative stress response and cell cycle regulation, which did not elicit significant alteration following MC-RR exposure. This work is the first comparative description of the effects of MC-LR and MC-RR in a human intestinal cell model at the pangenomic scale. It has allowed us to propose differences in the mechanism of toxicity for MC-RR and MC-LR. These results illustrate that taking into account the toxicity of MC variants remains a key point for risk assessment. © 2012 Elsevier Inc.

Huguet A.,Contaminant Toxicology Unit | Hatton A.,Contaminant Toxicology Unit | Villot R.,Contaminant Toxicology Unit | Quenault H.,Viral Genetics and Bio security Unit | And 2 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2014

Cylindrospermopsin (CYN) is a cyanotoxin that has been recognised as an emerging potential public health risk. Although CYN toxicity has been demonstrated, the mechanisms involved have not been fully characterised. To identify some key pathways related to this toxicity, we studied the transcriptomic profile of human intestinal Caco-2 cells exposed to a subtoxic concentration of CYN (1.6 mM for 24hrs) using a non-targeted approach. CYN was shown to modulate different biological functions which were related to growth arrest (with down-regulation of cdkn1a and uhrf1 genes), and DNA recombination and repair (with up-regulation of aptx and pms2 genes). Our main results reported an increased expression of some histone-modifying enzymes (histone acetyl and methyltransferases MYST1, KAT5 and EHMT2) involved in chromatin remodelling, which is essential for initiating transcription. We also detected greater levels of acetylated histone H2A (Lys5) and dimethylated histone H3 (Lys4), two products of these enzymes. In conclusion, CYN overexpressed proteins involved in DNA damage repair and transcription, including modifications of nucleosomal histones. Our results highlighted some new cell processes induced by CYN. © 2014 Huguet et al.

Huguet A.,Contaminant Toxicology Unit | Henri J.,Contaminant Toxicology Unit | Petitpas M.,Contaminant Toxicology Unit | Hogeveen K.,Contaminant Toxicology Unit | Fessard V.,Contaminant Toxicology Unit
Journal of Biochemical and Molecular Toxicology | Year: 2013

While MC-LR and MC-RR share significant structural similarity, MC-RR is less cytotoxic than MC-LR. In the current study, we have compared the effects of MC-LR and MC-RR in Caco-2 cells by evaluating cytotoxicity, oxidative stress (reactive oxygen species production), and the cellular proinflammatory response (IL-6 and IL-8 production). Following treatment with 100 μM microcystins (MC), cytotoxicity was two-fold greater with MC-LR as compared to MC-RR after 24 h exposure. Whereas the reactive oxygen species production and IL-6 secretion were similar following a 24-h treatment with either MC, 100 μM MC-LR induced a five-fold greater IL-8 secretion when compared to MC-RR. Our study has demonstrated that, although both MC-LR and MC-RR induced some cytotoxicity in human intestinal cells, a major difference in IL-8 production was observed between the two variants. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

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