Contaminant Toxicology Unit

Saint-André-de-la-Marche, France

Contaminant Toxicology Unit

Saint-André-de-la-Marche, France
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Zeller P.,Contaminant Toxicology Unit | Clement M.,University of Nantes | Fessard V.,Contaminant Toxicology Unit
Toxicology | Year: 2011

Microcystins (MCs) are cyclic hepatotoxins produced by various species of cyanobacteria. Their structure includes two variable amino acids (AA) leading to more than 80 MC variants. In this study, we focused on the most common variant, microcystin-LR (MC-LR), and microcystin-RR (MC-RR), a variant differing by only one AA. Despite their structural similarity, MC-LR elicits higher liver toxicity than MC-RR partly due to a discrepancy in their uptake by hepatic organic anion transporters (OATP 1B1 and 1B3). However, even though ingestion is the major pathway of human exposure to MCs, intestinal absorption of MCs has been poorly addressed. Consequently, we investigated the cellular uptake of the two MC variants in the human intestinal cell line Caco-2 by immunolocalization using an anti-MC antibody. Caco-2 cells were treated for 30 min to 24 h with several concentrations (1-50. μM) of both variants. We first confirmed the localization of OATP 3A1 and 4A1 at the cell membrane of Caco-2 cells. Our study also revealed a rapid uptake of both variants in less than 1 h. The uptake profiles of the two variants did not differ in our immunostaining study neither with respect to concentration nor the time of exposure. Furthermore, we have demonstrated for the first time the nuclear localization of MC-RR and confirmed that of MC-LR. Finally, our results suggest a facilitated uptake and an active excretion of MC-LR and MC-RR in Caco-2 cells. Further investigation on the role of OATP 3A1 and 4A1 in MC uptake should be useful to clarify the mechanism of intestinal absorption of MCs and contribute in risk assessment of cyanotoxin exposure. © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd.


PubMed | Karolinska Institutet, University of Leipzig, University of Oslo, Autonomous University of Barcelona and 11 more.
Type: | Journal: Wiley interdisciplinary reviews. Nanomedicine and nanobiotechnology | Year: 2016

With the growing numbers of nanomaterials (NMs), there is a great demand for rapid and reliable ways of testing NM safety-preferably using in vitro approaches, to avoid the ethical dilemmas associated with animal research. Data are needed for developing intelligent testing strategies for risk assessment of NMs, based on grouping and read-across approaches. The adoption of high throughput screening (HTS) and high content analysis (HCA) for NM toxicity testing allows the testing of numerous materials at different concentrations and on different types of cells, reduces the effect of inter-experimental variation, and makes substantial savings in time and cost. HTS/HCA approaches facilitate the classification of key biological indicators of NM-cell interactions. Validation of in vitro HTS tests is required, taking account of relevance to in vivo results. HTS/HCA approaches are needed to assess dose- and time-dependent toxicity, allowing prediction of in vivo adverse effects. Several HTS/HCA methods are being validated and applied for NM testing in the FP7 project NANoREG, including Label-free cellular screening of NM uptake, HCA, High throughput flow cytometry, Impedance-based monitoring, Multiplex analysis of secreted products, and genotoxicity methods-namely High throughput comet assay, High throughput in vitro micronucleus assay, and H2AX assay. There are several technical challenges with HTS/HCA for NM testing, as toxicity screening needs to be coupled with characterization of NMs in exposure medium prior to the test; possible interference of NMs with HTS/HCA techniques is another concern. Advantages and challenges of HTS/HCA approaches in NM safety are discussed. For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website.


Tang Y.,New York State Department of Health | LeMaster D.M.,New York State Department of Health | Nauwelaers G.,University of Rennes 1 | Nauwelaers G.,Contaminant Toxicology Unit | And 3 more authors.
Journal of Biological Chemistry | Year: 2012

2-Amino-9H-pyrido[2,3-b]indole (AαC) is a carcinogenic heterocyclic aromatic amine (HAA) that arises in tobacco smoke. UDP-glucuronosyltransferases (UGTs) are important enzymes that detoxicate many procarcinogens, including HAAs. UGTs compete with P450 enzymes, which bioactivate HAAs by N-hydroxylation of the exocyclic amine group; the resultant N-hydroxy-HAA metabolites form covalent adducts with DNA. We have characterized the UGT-catalyzed metabolic products of AαC and the genotoxic metabolite 2-hydroxyamino-9H-pyrido[2,3- b]indole (HONH-AαC) formed with human liver microsomes, recombinant human UGT isoforms, and human hepatocytes. The structures of the metabolites were elucidated by 1H NMR and mass spectrometry. AαC and HONH-AαC underwent glucuronidation by UGTs to form, respectively, N2-(β- D-glucosidurony1)-2-amino-9H-pyrido[2,3-b]indole (AαC-N2-Gl) and N2-(β-D-glucosidurony1)-2-hydroxyamino-9H-pyrido[2,3-b] indole (AαC-HON2-Gl). HONH-AαC also underwent glucuronidation to form a novel O-linked glucuronide conjugate, O-(β-D-glucosidurony1)-2-hydroxyamino-9H-pyrido[2,3-b]indole (AαC-HN2-O-Gl). AαC-HN2-O-Gl is a biologically reactive metabolite and binds to calf thymus DNA (pH 5.0 or 7.0) to form the N-(deoxyguanosin-8-yl)-AαC adduct at 20-50-fold higher levels than the adduct levels formed with HONH-AαC. Major UGT isoforms were examined for their capacity to metabolize AαC and HONH-AαC. UGT1A4 was the most catalytically efficient enzyme (Vmax/Km) at forming AαC-N2-Gl (0.67 μl·min-1·mg of protein-1), and UGT1A9 was most catalytically efficient at forming AαC-HN-O-Gl (77.1 μl·min-1·mg of protein -1), whereas UGT1A1 was most efficient at forming AαC-HON 2-Gl (5.0 μl·min-1·mg of protein -1). Human hepatocytes produced AαC-N2-Gl and AαC-HN2-O-Gl in abundant quantities, but AαC-HON 2-Gl was a minor product. Thus, UGTs, usually important enzymes in the detoxication of many procarcinogens, serve as a mechanism of bioactivation of HONH-AαC. © 2012 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.


Huguet A.,Contaminant Toxicology Unit | Henri J.,Contaminant Toxicology Unit | Petitpas M.,Contaminant Toxicology Unit | Hogeveen K.,Contaminant Toxicology Unit | Fessard V.,Contaminant Toxicology Unit
Journal of Biochemical and Molecular Toxicology | Year: 2013

While MC-LR and MC-RR share significant structural similarity, MC-RR is less cytotoxic than MC-LR. In the current study, we have compared the effects of MC-LR and MC-RR in Caco-2 cells by evaluating cytotoxicity, oxidative stress (reactive oxygen species production), and the cellular proinflammatory response (IL-6 and IL-8 production). Following treatment with 100 μM microcystins (MC), cytotoxicity was two-fold greater with MC-LR as compared to MC-RR after 24 h exposure. Whereas the reactive oxygen species production and IL-6 secretion were similar following a 24-h treatment with either MC, 100 μM MC-LR induced a five-fold greater IL-8 secretion when compared to MC-RR. Our study has demonstrated that, although both MC-LR and MC-RR induced some cytotoxicity in human intestinal cells, a major difference in IL-8 production was observed between the two variants. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.


Zeller P.,Contaminant Toxicology Unit | Quenault H.,Viral Genetics and Biosecurity Unit | Huguet A.,Contaminant Toxicology Unit | Blanchard Y.,Viral Genetics and Biosecurity Unit | Fessard V.,Contaminant Toxicology Unit
Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety | Year: 2012

Microcystins (MCs) are cyclic hepatotoxins produced by various species of cyanobacteria. Their structure includes two variable amino acids (AA) giving rise to more than 90 MC variants, however most of the studies to date have focused on the most toxic variant: microcystin LR (MC-LR). Ingestion is the major route of human exposure to MCs and several . in vivo studies have demonstrated macroscopic effects on the gastro-intestinal tract. However, little information exists concerning the pathways affected by MC variants on intestinal cells. In the current study, we have investigated the effects of MC-RR and MC-LR on the human intestinal cell line Caco-2 using a non-selective method and compared their response at the pangenomic scale. The cells were incubated for 4. h or 24. h with a range of non-toxic concentrations of MC-RR or MC-LR. Minimal effects were observed after short term exposures (4. h) to either MC variant. In contrast, dose dependent modulations of gene transcription levels were observed with MC-RR and MC-LR after 24. h. The transcriptomic profiles induced by MC-RR were quite similar to those induced by MC-LR, suggestive of a largely common mechanism of toxicity. However, changes in total gene expression were more pronounced following exposure to MC-LR compared to MC-RR, as revealed by functional annotation. MC-LR affected two principal pathways, the oxidative stress response and cell cycle regulation, which did not elicit significant alteration following MC-RR exposure. This work is the first comparative description of the effects of MC-LR and MC-RR in a human intestinal cell model at the pangenomic scale. It has allowed us to propose differences in the mechanism of toxicity for MC-RR and MC-LR. These results illustrate that taking into account the toxicity of MC variants remains a key point for risk assessment. © 2012 Elsevier Inc.


Huguet A.,Contaminant Toxicology Unit | Hatton A.,Contaminant Toxicology Unit | Villot R.,Contaminant Toxicology Unit | Quenault H.,Viral Genetics and Bio security Unit | And 2 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2014

Cylindrospermopsin (CYN) is a cyanotoxin that has been recognised as an emerging potential public health risk. Although CYN toxicity has been demonstrated, the mechanisms involved have not been fully characterised. To identify some key pathways related to this toxicity, we studied the transcriptomic profile of human intestinal Caco-2 cells exposed to a subtoxic concentration of CYN (1.6 mM for 24hrs) using a non-targeted approach. CYN was shown to modulate different biological functions which were related to growth arrest (with down-regulation of cdkn1a and uhrf1 genes), and DNA recombination and repair (with up-regulation of aptx and pms2 genes). Our main results reported an increased expression of some histone-modifying enzymes (histone acetyl and methyltransferases MYST1, KAT5 and EHMT2) involved in chromatin remodelling, which is essential for initiating transcription. We also detected greater levels of acetylated histone H2A (Lys5) and dimethylated histone H3 (Lys4), two products of these enzymes. In conclusion, CYN overexpressed proteins involved in DNA damage repair and transcription, including modifications of nucleosomal histones. Our results highlighted some new cell processes induced by CYN. © 2014 Huguet et al.


PubMed | Viral Genetics and Bio security Unit and Contaminant Toxicology Unit
Type: Journal Article | Journal: PloS one | Year: 2014

Cylindrospermopsin (CYN) is a cyanotoxin that has been recognised as an emerging potential public health risk. Although CYN toxicity has been demonstrated, the mechanisms involved have not been fully characterised. To identify some key pathways related to this toxicity, we studied the transcriptomic profile of human intestinal Caco-2 cells exposed to a sub-toxic concentration of CYN (1.6 M for 24hrs) using a non-targeted approach. CYN was shown to modulate different biological functions which were related to growth arrest (with down-regulation of cdkn1a and uhrf1 genes), and DNA recombination and repair (with up-regulation of aptx and pms2 genes). Our main results reported an increased expression of some histone-modifying enzymes (histone acetyl and methyltransferases MYST1, KAT5 and EHMT2) involved in chromatin remodelling, which is essential for initiating transcription. We also detected greater levels of acetylated histone H2A (Lys5) and dimethylated histone H3 (Lys4), two products of these enzymes. In conclusion, CYN overexpressed proteins involved in DNA damage repair and transcription, including modifications of nucleosomal histones. Our results highlighted some new cell processes induced by CYN.


Microcystins (MCs) are cyclic hepatotoxins produced by various species of cyanobacteria. Their structure includes two variable amino acids (AA) giving rise to more than 90 MC variants, however most of the studies to date have focused on the most toxic variant: microcystin LR (MC-LR). Ingestion is the major route of human exposure to MCs and several in vivo studies have demonstrated macroscopic effects on the gastro-intestinal tract. However, little information exists concerning the pathways affected by MC variants on intestinal cells. In the current study, we have investigated the effects of MC-RR and MC-LR on the human intestinal cell line Caco-2 using a non-selective method and compared their response at the pangenomic scale. The cells were incubated for 4h or 24h with a range of non-toxic concentrations of MC-RR or MC-LR. Minimal effects were observed after short term exposures (4h) to either MC variant. In contrast, dose dependent modulations of gene transcription levels were observed with MC-RR and MC-LR after 24h. The transcriptomic profiles induced by MC-RR were quite similar to those induced by MC-LR, suggestive of a largely common mechanism of toxicity. However, changes in total gene expression were more pronounced following exposure to MC-LR compared to MC-RR, as revealed by functional annotation. MC-LR affected two principal pathways, the oxidative stress response and cell cycle regulation, which did not elicit significant alteration following MC-RR exposure. This work is the first comparative description of the effects of MC-LR and MC-RR in a human intestinal cell model at the pangenomic scale. It has allowed us to propose differences in the mechanism of toxicity for MC-RR and MC-LR. These results illustrate that taking into account the toxicity of MC variants remains a key point for risk assessment.


PubMed | Contaminant Toxicology Unit
Type: Comparative Study | Journal: Toxicology | Year: 2011

Microcystins (MCs) are cyclic hepatotoxins produced by various species of cyanobacteria. Their structure includes two variable amino acids (AA) leading to more than 80 MC variants. In this study, we focused on the most common variant, microcystin-LR (MC-LR), and microcystin-RR (MC-RR), a variant differing by only one AA. Despite their structural similarity, MC-LR elicits higher liver toxicity than MC-RR partly due to a discrepancy in their uptake by hepatic organic anion transporters (OATP 1B1 and 1B3). However, even though ingestion is the major pathway of human exposure to MCs, intestinal absorption of MCs has been poorly addressed. Consequently, we investigated the cellular uptake of the two MC variants in the human intestinal cell line Caco-2 by immunolocalization using an anti-MC antibody. Caco-2 cells were treated for 30min to 24h with several concentrations (1-50M) of both variants. We first confirmed the localization of OATP 3A1 and 4A1 at the cell membrane of Caco-2 cells. Our study also revealed a rapid uptake of both variants in less than 1h. The uptake profiles of the two variants did not differ in our immunostaining study neither with respect to concentration nor the time of exposure. Furthermore, we have demonstrated for the first time the nuclear localization of MC-RR and confirmed that of MC-LR. Finally, our results suggest a facilitated uptake and an active excretion of MC-LR and MC-RR in Caco-2 cells. Further investigation on the role of OATP 3A1 and 4A1 in MC uptake should be useful to clarify the mechanism of intestinal absorption of MCs and contribute in risk assessment of cyanotoxin exposure.

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