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Polinder S.,Rotterdam University | Iordens G.I.,Rotterdam University | Panneman M.J.,Consumer and Safety Institute | Eygendaal D.,Amphia Hospital | And 3 more authors.
BMC Public Health | Year: 2013

Background: Upper extremity injuries account for a large proportion of attendances to the Emergency Department. The aim of this study was to assess population-based trends in the incidence of upper extremity injuries in the Dutch population between 1986 and 2008, and to give a detailed overview of the associated health care costs. Methods. Age-standardized incidence rates of upper extremity injuries were calculated for each year between 1986 and 2008. The average number of people in each of the 5-year age classes for each year of the study was calculated and used as the standard (reference) population. Injury cases were extracted from the National Injury Surveillance System (non-hospitalized patients) and the National Medical Registration (hospitalized patients). An incidence-based cost model was applied in order to estimate associated direct health care costs in 2007. Results: The overall age-adjusted incidence of upper extremity injuries increased from 970 to 1,098 per 100,000 persons (13%). The highest incidence was seen in young persons and elderly women. Total annual costs for all injuries were 290 million euro, of which 190 million euro were paid for injuries sustained by women. Wrist fractures were the most expensive injuries (83 million euro) due to high incidence, whereas upper arm fractures were the most expensive injuries per case (4,440 euro). Major cost peaks were observed for fractures in elderly women due to high incidence and costs per patient. Conclusions: The overall incidence of upper extremity injury in the Netherlands increased by 13% in the period 1986-2008. Females with upper extremity fractures and especially elderly women with wrist fractures accounted for a substantial share of total costs. © 2013 Polinder et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.


Schepers J.P.,Ministry of Infrastructure and the Environment | Schepers J.P.,University Utrecht | Fishman E.,University Utrecht | Den Hertog P.,Consumer and Safety Institute | And 2 more authors.
Accident Analysis and Prevention | Year: 2014

Use of electrically assisted bicycles with a maximum speed of 25 km/h is rapidly increasing. This growth has been particularly rapid in the Netherlands, yet very little research has been conducted to assess the road safety implications. This case-control study compares the likelihood of crashes for which treatment at an emergency department is needed and injury consequences for electric bicycles to classic bicycles in the Netherlands among users of 16 years and older. Data were gathered through a survey of victims treated at emergency departments. Additionally, a survey of cyclists without any known crash experience, drawn from a panel of the Dutch population acted as a control sample. Logistic regression analysis is used to compare the risk of crashes with electric and classical bicycles requiring treatment at an emergency department. Among the victims treated at an emergency department we compared those being hospitalized to those being send home after the treatment at the emergency department to compare the injury consequences between electric and classical bicycle victims. The results suggest that, after controlling for age, gender and amount of bicycle use, electric bicycle users are more likely to be involved in a crash that requires treatment at an emergency department due to a crash. Crashes with electric bicycles are about equally severe as crashes with classic bicycles. We advise further research to develop policies to minimize the risk and maximize the health benefits for users of electric bicycles. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


Hartholt K.A.,Erasmus Medical Center | van der Velde N.,Erasmus Medical Center | Looman C.W.N.,Erasmus Medical Center | Panneman M.J.M.,Consumer and Safety Institute | And 3 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2010

Background: Epidemiologic information on time trends of Adverse Drug Reactions (ADR) and ADR-related hospitalizations is scarce. Over time, pharmacotherapy has become increasingly complex. Because of raised awareness of ADR, a decrease in ADR might be expected. The aim of this study was to determine trends in ADR-related hospitalizations in the older Dutch population. Methodology and Principal Findings: Secular trend analysis of ADR-related hospital admissions in patients ≥60 years between 1981 and 2007, using the National Hospital Discharge Registry of the Netherlands. Numbers, age-specific and age-adjusted incidence rates (per 10,000 persons) of ADR-related hospital admissions were used as outcome measures in each year of the study. Between 1981 and 2007, ADR-related hospital admissions in persons ≥60 years increased by 143%. The overall standardized incidence rate increased from 23.3 to 38.3 per 10,000 older persons. The increase was larger in males than in females. Since 1997, the increase in incidence rates of ADR-related hospitalizations flattened (percentage annual change 0.65%), compared to the period 1981-1996 (percentage annual change 2.56%). Conclusion/Significance: ADR-related hospital admissions in older persons have shown a rapidly increasing trend in the Netherlands over the last three decades with a temporization since 1997. Although an encouraging flattening in the increasing trend of ADR-related admissions was found around 1997, the incidence is still rising, which warrants sustained attention to this problem. © 2010 Hartholt et al.


De Putter C.E.,Erasmus University Rotterdam | Selles R.W.,Erasmus University Rotterdam | Polinder S.,Erasmus University Rotterdam | Panneman M.J.M.,Consumer and Safety Institute | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery - Series A | Year: 2012

Background: Injuries to the hand and wrist account for approximately 20% of patient visits to emergency departments and may impose a large economic burden. The purpose of this study was to estimate the total health-care costs and productivity costs of injuries to the hand and wrist and to compare them with other important injury groups in a nationwide study. Methods: Data were retrieved from the Dutch Injury Surveillance System, from the National Hospital Discharge Registry, and from a patient follow-up survey conducted between 2007 and 2008. Injury incidence, health-care costs, and productivity costs (due to absenteeism) were calculated by age group, sex, and different subgroups of injuries. An incidence-based cost model was used to estimate the health-care costs of injuries. Follow-up data on return to work rates were incorporated into the absenteeism model for estimating the productivity costs. Results: Hand and wrist injuries annually account for $740 million (in U.S. dollars) and rank first in the order of most expensive injury types, before knee and lower limb fractures ($562 million), hip fractures ($532 million), and skull-brain injury ($355 million). Productivity costs contributed more to the total costs of hand and wrist injuries (56%) than did direct health-care costs. Within the overall group of hand and wrist injuries, hand and finger fractures are the most expensive group ($278 million), largely due to high productivity costs in the age group of twenty to sixty-four years ($192 million). Conclusions: Hand and wrist injuries not only constitute a substantial part of all treated injuries but also represent a considerable economic burden, with both high health-care and productivity costs. Hand and wrist injuries should be a priority area for research in trauma care, and further research could help to reduce the cost of these injuries, both to the health-care system and to society. Copyright © 2012 by The Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery, Incorporated.


Nanninga G.L.,Surgery | de Leur K.,Surgery | Panneman M.J.M.,Consumer and Safety Institute | van der Elst M.,Surgery | Hartholt K.A.,Surgery
Age and Ageing | Year: 2014

Background: age-related issues are expected to rise in the coming decades. Osteoporosis, falls and fractures are major public health issues among elderly. Pelvic fractures are associated with a serious morbidity and hospitalisation rate. We therefore performed a study to determine trends in incidence and age-specific rates of pelvic fracture-related hospitalisations among elderly (≥65 years).Methods: a secular trend analysis of all hospitalisations due to a pelvic fracture among older adults, using the National Medical Registration, 1986-2011, The Netherlands.Results: the total number of hospitalisations due to a pelvic fracture increased from 887 in 1986 to 2,013 admissions in 2011 (127% increase). The overall age-adjusted incidence rate increased from 5.19 in 1986 to 7.14 per 10,000 population in 2011 (37.5% increase). The incidence rate increased with age and was higher for females. The Percentual Annual Change was 1.2% (95% CI: 0.9;1.5) for older males, and 1.0% (95% CI: 0.9;1.2) for females, respectively. The mean length of hospital stay decreased between 1991 and 2011 to 12.0 days (53.4% decrease). The total number of hospital-bed-days decreased from 29,002 days in 1991 to 17,283 days in 2011 (40.4% decrease), despite an increase in absolute number of admissions.Conclusion: absolute numbers and incidence rates of pelvic fractures are increasing among the older Dutch population. Considering the fact the general population is growing older, an increasing number of elderly suffer from pelvic fractures. Attention on osteoporosis screening and prevention of falls in elderly remains important, in order to limit-related healthcare costs in the future. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Geriatrics Society. All rights reserved.


Scholten A.C.,Erasmus Medical Center | Haagsma J.A.,Erasmus Medical Center | Panneman M.J.M.,Consumer and Safety Institute | Van Beeck E.F.,Erasmus Medical Center | Polinder S.,Erasmus Medical Center
PLoS ONE | Year: 2014

Objective: Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a major cause of death and disability, leading to great personal suffering and huge costs to society. Integrated knowledge on epidemiology, economic consequences and disease burden of TBI is scarce but essential for optimizing healthcare policy and preventing TBI. This study aimed to estimate incidence, cost-of-illness and disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) of TBI in the Netherlands.Methods: This study included data on all TBI patients who were treated at an Emergency Department (ED - National Injury Surveillance System), hospitalized (National Medical Registration), or died due to their injuries in the Netherlands between 2010-2012. Direct healthcare costs and indirect costs were determined using the incidence-based Dutch Burden of Injury Model. Disease burden was assessed by calculating years of life lost (YLL) owing to premature death, years lived with disability (YLD) and DALYs. Incidence, costs and disease burden were stratified by age and gender.Results: TBI incidence was 213.6 per 100,000 person years. Total costs were J314.6 (USD 433.8) million per year and disease burden resulted in 171,200 DALYs (on average 7.1 DALYs per case). Men had highest mean costs per case (J19,540 versus J14,940), driven by indirect costs. 0-24-year-olds had high incidence and disease burden but low economic costs, whereas 25-64-year-olds had relatively low incidence but high economic costs. Patients aged 65 + had highest incidence, leading to considerable direct healthcare costs. 0-24-year-olds, men aged 25-64 years, traffic injury victims (especially bicyclists) and home and leisure injury victims (especially 0-5-year-old and elderly fallers) are identified as risk groups in TBI.Conclusions: The economic and health consequences of TBI are substantial. The integrated approach of assessing incidence, costs and disease burden enables detection of important risk groups in TBI, development of prevention programs that target these risk groups and assessment of the benefits of these programs. These authors have no support or funding to report. ©2014 Scholten et al.


Hartholt K.A.,Rotterdam University | Polinder S.,Rotterdam University | Van Der Cammen T.J.M.,Rotterdam University | Panneman M.J.M.,Consumer and Safety Institute | And 4 more authors.
Injury | Year: 2012

Background: Falls are a common mechanism of injury in the older population, putting an increasing demand on scarce healthcare resources. The objective of this study was to determine healthcare costs due to falls in the older population. Methods: An incidence-based cost model was used to estimate the annual healthcare costs and costs per case spent on fall-related injuries in patients ≥65 years, The Netherlands (2007-2009). Costs were subdivided by age, gender, nature of injury, and type of resource use. Results: In the period 2007-2009, each year 3% of all persons aged ≥65 years visited the Emergency Department due to a fall incident. Related medical costs were estimated at €675.4 million annually. Fractures led to 80% (€540 million) of the fall-related healthcare costs. The mean costs per fall were €9370, and were higher for women (€9990) than men (€7510) and increased with age (from €3900 at ages 65-69 years to €14,600 at ages ≥85 year). Persons ≥80 years accounted for 47% of all fall-related Emergency Department visits, and 66% of total costs. The costs of long-term care at home and in nursing homes showed the largest age-related increases and accounted together for 54% of the fall-related costs in older people. Discussion: Fall-related injuries are leading to a high healthcare consumption and related healthcare costs, which increases with age. Programmes to prevent falls and fractures should be further implemented in order to reduce costs due to falls in the older population and to avoid that healthcare systems become overburdened. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


Hartholt K.A.,Rotterdam University | Oudshoorn C.,Rotterdam University | Zielinski S.M.,Rotterdam University | Burgers P.T.P.W.,Rotterdam University | And 4 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2011

Background: Hip fractures are a public health problem, leading to hospitalization, long-term rehabilitation, reduced quality of life, large healthcare expenses, and a high 1-year mortality. Especially older adults are at greater risk of fractures than the general population, due to the combination of an increased fall risk and osteoporosis. The aim of this study was to determine time trends in numbers and incidence rates of hip fracture-related hospitalizations and admission duration in the older Dutch population. Methods and Findings: Secular trend analysis of all hospitalizations in the older Dutch population (≥65 years) from 1981 throughout 2008, using the National Hospital Discharge Registry. Numbers, age-specific and age-adjusted incidence rates (per 10,000 persons) of hospital admissions and hospital days due to a hip fracture were used as outcome measures in each year of the study. Between 1981 and 2008, the absolute number of hip fractures doubled in the older Dutch population. Incidence rates of hip fracture-related hospital admissions increased with age, and were higher in women than in men. The age-adjusted incidence rate increased from 52.0 to 67.6 per 10,000 older persons. However, since 1994 the incidence rate decreased (percentage annual change -0.5%, 95% CI: -0.7; -0.3), compared with the period 1981-1993 (percentage annual change 2.3%, 95% CI: 2.0; 2.7). The total number of hospital days was reduced by a fifth, due to a reduced admission duration in all age groups. A possible limitation was that data were obtained from a linked administrative database, which did not include information on medication use or co-morbidities. Conclusions: A trend break in the incidence rates of hip fracture-related hospitalizations was observed in the Netherlands around 1994, possibly as a first result of efforts to prevent falls and fractures. However, the true cause of the observation is unknown. © 2011 Hartholt et al.


Hartholt K.A.,Rotterdam University | Van Lieshout E.M.M.,Rotterdam University | Polinder S.,Rotterdam University | Panneman M.J.M.,Consumer and Safety Institute | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Neurotrauma | Year: 2011

Falls occur frequently in older adults. With ageing populations worldwide, an increase in fall-related traumatic head injuries can be expected. The aim of our study was to determine trends in traumatic head-injury-related hospitalizations among older adults. Therefore, a secular trend analysis of fall-related traumatic head injuries in the older Dutch population between 1986 and 2008 was performed, using the National Hospital Discharge Registry. All significant fall-related traumatic head injury hospitalizations in persons aged ≥65 years were extracted from this database. During the study period, traumatic head-injury-related hospitalizations increased by 213% to 3,010 in 2008. The incidence rate increased annually by 1.2% (95% CI: 0.6; 1.9) between 1986 and 2000. Since 2001, the increase has accelerated up to 11.6% (95% CI: 9.5; 13.8) per year. Overall, the age-adjusted incidence rate increased from 53.1 in 1986 to 119.1 per 100,000 older persons in 2008. Age-specific incidence rates increased in all age groups, especially in persons aged ≥85 years. Despite an overall reduction in the length of hospital stay per admission, the total number of hospital-bed-days increased with 31.5% to 20,250 between 1991 and 2008. In conclusion, numbers and incidence rates of significant traumatic head-injury-related hospitalization after a fall are increasing rapidly in the older Dutch population, especially in the oldest old, resulting in an increased health care demand. The recent increase might be explained by the ageing population, but also other factors may have contributed to the increase, such as an increased awareness of traumatic head injuries, the implementation of renewed guidelines for traumatic head injuries, and improved radiographic tools. © Copyright 2011, Mary Ann Liebert, Inc.


De Boer A.S.,Rotterdam University | Schepers T.,Rotterdam University | Panneman M.J.M.,Consumer and Safety Institute | Van Beeck E.F.,Rotterdam University | Van Lieshout E.M.M.,Rotterdam University
BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders | Year: 2014

Background: Foot and ankle injuries account for a large proportion of Emergency Department attendance. The aim of this study was to assess population-based trends in attendances due to foot and ankle injuries in the Netherlands since 1986, and to provide a detailed analysis of health care costs in these patients. Methods. Age- and gender-standardized emergency attendance rates and incidence rates for hospital admission were calculated for each year of the study. Injury cases and hospital length of stay were extracted from the National Injury Surveillance System (non-hospitalized patients) and the National Medical Registration (hospitalized patients). Data were grouped into osseous and ligamentous injuries for foot and ankle separately. An incidence-based cost model was applied to calculate associated direct health care costs. Results: Since 1986 the overall emergency attendance rate decreased from 858 to 640 per 100,000 person years. In non-admitted patients (90% of cases), ligamentous injuries approximately halved, whereas osseous injuries increased by 28% (foot) and 25% (ankle). The incidence rate for hospital admission increased by 35%, mainly due to an almost doubling of osseous injuries. Attendance rates showed a peak in adolescents and adults until ∼45 years of age in males and (less pronounced) in females. The total number of hospital days decreased to 58,708 days in 2010. Hospital length of stay (HLOS) increased with age and was highest for osseous injuries. HLOS was unaffected by gender, apart for longer stay in elderly females with an osseous ankle injury. Health care costs per case were highest for osseous injuries of the ankle ( 3,461). Costs were higher for females and increased with age to 6,023 in elderly males and 10,949 in elderly females. Main cost determinants were in-hospital care (56% of total costs), rehabilitation/nursing care (15%), and physical therapy (12%). Conclusions: Since 1986, the emergency attendance rate of foot and ankle injuries in the Netherlands decreased by 25%. Throughout the years, the attendance rate of (relatively simple) ligamentous injuries strongly reduced, whereas osseous injuries nearly doubled. Attendance rates and health care costs were gender- and age-related. Main cost determinants were in-hospital care, rehabilitation/ nursing care, and physical therapy. © 2014 De Boer et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

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