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Food, United Kingdom

Budzianowski W.M.,Consulting Services | Budzianowski W.M.,Renewable Energy and Sustainable Development RESD Group
International Journal of Greenhouse Gas Control | Year: 2016

CO2 capture by gas-liquid absorption needs solvents able to overcome existing barriers for wide-scale adoption including high energy requirement, slow reaction rate, insufficient CO2 loading capacity, solvent degradation and corrosiveness, poor selectivity or limited operating window. It is challenging if not impossible for single or blended solvents to satisfy all these requirements and reach technology readiness level sufficient for economically viable deployment in large-scale CO2 capture systems, especially in the energy sector. Therefore, innovative advanced solvent processes (ASPs) attract attention as a new technology that may overcome existing barriers in CO2 capture by gas-liquid absorption. Due to significant research funding in the area of advanced solvent processes over a few recent years many new ASPs have been developed. Thus this study delivers an explorative analysis of ASPs suitable for energy efficient CO2 capture by gas-liquid absorption. The emphasis is put on ASPs such as two immiscible liquid phases, precipitating solvents, catalysed solvents, microencapsulated solvents, liquid membrane solvents, ionic liquids, and polarity-swing-assisted solvents. The analysis shows that some of recently developed ASPs made huge progress in terms of reduced energy requirement for capturing CO2. However, most advanced solvent processes have insufficient technology readiness level and, in addition, there is still place for further energy efficiency improvement. Therefore, research efforts capable of bringing ASPs to commercialisation and wide-scale adoption in real large-scale CO2 capture applications are required in next few years. © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. Source

Lammers P.J.,Consulting Services
CAB Reviews: Perspectives in Agriculture, Veterinary Science, Nutrition and Natural Resources | Year: 2011

Life-cycle assessment (LCA) is a holistic approach to quantifying and comparing resource use and associated environmental impacts of a product, good or service. Pork is the most widely consumed meat globally and LCA methodology has been used to compare different pig production scenarios. This paper reviews LCAs of different farrow-to-finish swine systems. Generally, alternative systems (organic production, production with an emphasis on animal welfare or other niche markets) require more land per unit than conventional systems. Energy use is sometimes, but not always, lower in alternative systems. Greenhouse gas emissions are closely linked with energy use. In some situations, conventional production results in less acidification and eutrophication, but in other cases, alternative systems have lower impacts. Growing and processing pig diets was the largest single influence on resource use and resultant environmental impact. Thus, feed efficiency is a critical control point in pig production systems. Differences in acidification and eutrophication between systems can largely be explained by underlying assumptions of crop nutrient management, including manure storage and utilization. Coupling biogas and pig production, where feasible, may offset much of the energy used for pig production. Efforts to reduce resource use and environmental impacts of pig production should not ignore the under-utilized nutrient resources present in rejected foodstuffs, rendered animal products and co-products of biofuel production. © CAB International 2011. Source

Webster J.L.,University of Sydney | Dunford E.K.,University of Sydney | Hawkes C.,Consulting Services | Hawkes C.,City University London | Neal B.C.,University of Sydney
Journal of Hypertension | Year: 2011

Objective: To provide an overview of national salt reduction initiatives around the world, describe core characteristics and develop a framework for future strategy development. Methods: National strategies were identified from existing reviews and from searches of the literature and relevant websites. Standardized information was extracted about governance and strategy development, baseline assessments and monitoring and implementation. Results: Thirty-two country salt reduction initiatives were identified. The majority of activity was in Europe (19 countries). Most countries (27) had maximum population salt intake targets, ranging from 5 to 8 g/person per day. Twenty-six of the 32 strategies were led by government, five by nongovernment organizations and one by industry. Twenty-eight countries had some baseline data on salt consumption and 18 had data on sodium levels in foods. Twenty-eight countries were working with the food industry to reduce salt in foods, 10 had front-of-pack labelling schemes and 28 had consumer awareness or behaviour change programs. Five countries had demonstrated an impact, either on population salt consumption, salt levels in foods or consumer awareness. These strategies were led by government and were multifaceted including food reformulation, consumer awareness initiatives and labelling actions. Conclusion: This is the first review to concisely summarize the most important elements of the many existing salt reduction programmes and highlight the characteristics most likely to be important to programme efficacy. For most countries, implementing a national salt reduction programme is likely to be one of simplest and most cost-effective ways of improving public health. © 2011 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. Source

Budzianowski W.M.,Consulting Services | Budzianowski W.M.,Renewable Energy and Sustainable Development RESD Group | Postawa K.,Renewable Energy and Sustainable Development RESD Group
Applied Energy | Year: 2016

Biorefineries are increasingly important commercial facilities for the production of biofuels, biopower and various biomaterials from biomass with potentials to displace several existing industries currently based on polluting and finite fossil resources. Biorefinery systems consist of biorefinery facilities and their entire value chain. Integration of biorefinery systems aims at optimising the use of energies and materials in the total chain from biomass plantations to end product utilisation and is therefore capable of successfully improving economic viability and sustainability of biorefineries. Total Chain Integration can minimise capital and operating expenditures, maximise the quality, quantity and value of biorefinery bioproducts as well as minimise environmental impacts and maximise societal benefits. In order to efficiently perform Total Chain Integration advanced holistic software tools dedicated to biorefinery systems need to be developed.This review study systematically analyses Total Chain Integration of sustainable biorefinery systems. Existing knowledge is systematised by characterising system boundaries, principles, and integration methodologies. Further, approaches used in integration of biorefinery systems are defined and their implementation is briefly illustrated by case studies. Finally, state-of-the-art software tools for biorefinery integration are analysed and the requirements of a software tool for Total Chain Integration are provided.The review findings show that in order to develop truly economically viable and sustainable biorefinery systems tight integration is required. Essential integration approaches include integration of platforms, exchanging wastes and products with other industries, applying more efficient conversion routes, effective ways of enlarging feedstocks base, providing ecosystem and social services, and optimising biomass supply chain. Total Chain Integration requires software tools accounting for technical, economic, environmental and societal optimisation objectives within all system boundaries and the whole life cycle. The requirements of such software are proposed. Software enhanced Total Chain Integration has a potential to successfully achieve economic viability and sustainability of biorefinery systems in the business practice. © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. Source

Budzianowski W.M.,Consulting Services | Budzianowski W.M.,Renewable Energy and Sustainable Development RESD Group | Postawa K.,Renewable Energy and Sustainable Development RESD Group
Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews | Year: 2016

Renewable energy from biogas has the potential to decarbonise energy systems. For example, biomethane derived from raw biogas may partially displace fossil fuels in the transportation sector. The implemented renewable energy actually decarbonises energy systems only if its life cycle CO2 footprint is lower than that of displaced conventional technologies, which is sometimes uncertain. Therefore, this study has been undertaken to review and synthesise knowledge available in the academic literature on the CO2 footprint of renewable energy from biogas. The typical life cycle CO2 footprint of biogas reported in literature is between 50 and 450kgCO2/MWhel. The review analyses three phases associated with biogas: (i) biomass production, (ii) biomass-to-biogas conversion, and (iii) biogas end use. It is found that remarkable CO2 footprint reduction can be achieved by innovating the biomass-to-biogas phase through limiting the amount of CO2 liberated to biogas. The mechanism for reducing CO2 footprint is proposed and suitable solutions are discussed and evaluated. The literature review is followed by a case study that improves the practical understanding of CO2 footprint reduction potentials. In the case study anaerobic digestion (AD) and pressurised anaerobic digestion (PAD) are compared in terms of their biomethane, power and heat generations, and CO2 emissions. Six plant configurations involving AD, biogas upgrading and combined heat and power (CHP) generation are modelled and simulated. The results show that due to the methane enrichment in biogas (94% CH4 at the self-sustained digester pressure of 5MPa) CO2 footprint is reduced. It is revealed that PAD based biogas plants may generate high purity biomethane with the extremely low direct CO2 footprint of about 13kgCO2/MWhf which contrasts with conventional CHP systems achieving about direct CO2 footprint of 700kgCO2/MWhel. The study also explores the fundamentals of PAD which is one of emerging biogas technologies.*Corresponding author. © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. Source

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