Consulting Engineering Office for Ecology

Salzburg, Austria

Consulting Engineering Office for Ecology

Salzburg, Austria

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Huang J.,Ocean University of China | Chen Z.,Ocean University of China | Song W.,Ocean University of China | Berger H.,Consulting Engineering Office for Ecology
Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution | Year: 2014

Classifications of the Urostyloidea were mainly based on morphology and morphogenesis. Since molecular phylogeny largely focused on limited sampling using mostly the one-gene information, the incongruence between morphological data and gene sequences have risen. In this work, the three-gene data (SSU-rDNA, ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 and LSU-rDNA) comprising 12 genera in the "core urostyloids" are sequenced, and the phylogenies based on these different markers are compared using maximum-likelihood and Bayesian algorithms and tested by unconstrained and constrained analyses. The molecular phylogeny supports the following conclusions: (1) the monophyly of the core group of Urostyloidea is well supported while the whole Urostyloidea is not monophyletic; (2) Thigmokeronopsis and Apokeronopsis are clearly separated from the pseudokeronopsids in analyses of all three gene markers, supporting their exclusion from the Pseudokeronopsidae and the inclusion in the Urostylidae; (3) Diaxonella and Apobakuella should be assigned to the Urostylidae; (4) Bergeriella, Monocoronella and Neourostylopsis flavicana share a most recent common ancestor; (5) all molecular trees support the transfer of Metaurostylopsis flavicana to the recently proposed genus Neourostylopsis; (6) all molecular phylogenies fail to separate the morphologically well-defined genera Uroleptopsis and Pseudokeronopsis; and (7) Arcuseries gen. nov. containing three distinctly deviating Anteholosticha species is established. © 2013 The Authors.


He W.,Harbin Normal University | He W.,ingenious targeting laboratory | Shi X.,Harbin Normal University | Shao C.,Ocean University of China | And 3 more authors.
Acta Protozoologica | Year: 2011

In 1988, we found a large (250-400 × 80-150 μm in protargol preparations) Uroleptus-like hypotrich in a freshwater pond in Harbin, China. We studied the morphology of non-dividers and the cell division using protargol impregnation. Since we disregarded live observations and due to the lack of a modern revision of the uroleptids, a final identification was not possible. A detailed comparison with the most similar limnetic Uroleptus-like hypotrichs and with Rigidothrix goiseri revealed that the Chinese population is very likely identical with Uroleptus magnificus [basionym Holosticha (Paruroleptus) magnificus Kahl, 1932], a very rare species possibly confined to limnetic, stagnant water bodies of the holarctic region. Besides the large size, main features of U. cf. magnificus are: (i) about 80 adoral membranelles; (ii) three or four inconspicuous transverse cirri; (iii) 5-8 dorsomarginal kineties; (iv) the oral primordium originates de novo left of the postoral midventral cirri; (v) the frontal-ventral-transverse cirri anlagen of the proter and the opisthe originate via primary primordia; (vi) the left frontal cirrus of the proter originates from the middle portion of the disorganizing parental paroral; (vii) the parental endoral becomes the undulating membrane anlage for the proter; and (viii) the frontoterminal cirri originate in the plesiomorphic manner, that is, from the rearmost anlage. A compilation reveals that 59 species, subspecies, etc. have been described in or assigned to Uroleptus and Paruroleptus, but only about 50% of them seem to be true uroleptids. Many species of this predominantly limnetic group are little known.


Jung J.-H.,Korea Polar Research Institute | Jung J.-H.,Gangneung - Wonju National University | Park K.-M.,Korea Polar Research Institute | Park K.-M.,Inha University | And 3 more authors.
Polar Science | Year: 2015

The morphology of an Antarctic soil population of Paraholosticha muscicola, type species of Paraholosticha, is described from life and after protargol preparation. The data agree rather well with that of relevant descriptions, but the total variability of several features is relatively high in this species. Paraholosticha ovata and P. lichenicola are very likely junior synonyms. In addition, we sequenced the SSU rRNA gene of P.muscicola and thus we can estimate for the first time the phylogenetic position of a member of the Keronopsidae, the sole hypotrichs that divide in cysts. The molecular data basically support the position derived from morphological concepts, that is, P.muscicola branches off outside the Dorsomarginalia because kinety fragmentation and dorsomarginal rows are lacking. However, as in many other molecular analyses, discrepancies with morphology-based hypothesis are present. The misclassification of Paraholosticha and its sister-group Keronopsis in the Keronidae, with Kerona pediculus as type species, is discussed. © 2015.


Dunthorn M.,University of Kaiserslautern | Lipps J.H.,University of California at Berkeley | Lipps J.H.,John oper Archaeological And Paleontological Center | Dolan J.R.,French National Center for Scientific Research | And 55 more authors.
Marine Micropaleontology | Year: 2015

Since ciliates rarely possess structures that easily fossilize, we are limited in our ability to use paleontological studies to reconstruct the early evolution of this large and ecologically important clade of protists. Tintinnids, a group of loricate (house-forming) planktonic ciliates, are the only group that has a significant fossil record. Putative tintinnid fossils from rocks older than Jurassic, however, possess few to no characters that can be found in extant ciliates; these fossils are best described as '. incertae sedis eukaryotes'. Here, we review the Devonian fossil Nassacysta reticulata and propose that it is likewise another incertae sedis eukaryote due to the lack of any unambiguous ciliate characters. Future tintinnid fossil descriptions would be most helpful if: (i) neutral terminology is used in the descriptions but ciliate-specific terminology in the interpretations; (ii) the current ciliate classification is used, although fossil data may expand or modify classifications based on modern forms; (iii) close collaboration with specialists studying extant ciliates is done; and (iv) editors include an expert of extant ciliates in the review process. © 2015 Elsevier B.V.


Li L.,Ocean University of China | Huang J.,Ocean University of China | Song W.,Ocean University of China | Shin M.K.,University of Ulsan | And 2 more authors.
Acta Protozoologica | Year: 2010

The morphology, the infraciliature, some stages of cell division and physiological reorganization, and the SSU rRNA gene sequence of the little-known marine 18-cirri hypotrich Tachysoma rigescens (Kahl, 1932) Borror, 1972 [basionym Oxytricha (Tachysoma) rigescens], isolated from mariculture waters near Qingdao, China, were investigated. This rare species is characterized, inter alia, by narrowly spaced, small, colourless cortical granules and several conspicuous ring-shaped structures in the cytoplasm. The caudal cirri and the simple dorsal kinety pattern (three bipolar kineties) are probably plesiomorphic traits within the Hypotricha, the composition of the adoral zone of the proter from new and parental membranelles, as well as the presence of two 'extra' cirri behind the right marginal row strongly suggest a misclassification in Tachysoma. The SSU rRNA gene sequence data indicate that T. rigescens branches off rather basally in the Hypotricha tree, which supports the hypothesis that the 18-cirri pattern occurred very early, probably already in the last common ancestor of the Hypotricha. A detailed survey of the early branching 18-cirri hypotrichs and similar taxa (e.g. Trachelostyla pediculiformis, Hemigastrostyla enigmatica, Protogastrostyla pulchra) reveals that for T. rigescens a new genus (Apogastrostyla gen. nov.) has to be established, because there are important differences, inter alia, in the dorsal infraciliature. Besides the type species, A. rigescens comb. nov., which seems to be confined to the northern hemisphere according to the sparse faunistic data, a second marine species, A. szaboi comb. nov. (basionym Hemigastrostyla szaboi), so far only twice recorded from the Antarctic region, can be included. The Chinese population is fixed as neotype to define the species objectively, because no type material of A. rigescens is present and the original type locality is not known. The species name Tachysoma multinucleate is emended: Tachysoma multinucleatum nom. corr.


Shao C.,Xi'an University of Science and Technology | Song W.,Ocean University of China | Al-Rasheid K.A.S.,King Saud University | Berger H.,Consulting Engineering Office for Ecology | Berger H.,University of Salzburg
Acta Protozoologica | Year: 2011

The morphology, the infraciliature, and two stages of physiological reorganization of Hemigastrostyla elongata spec. nov., isolated from the Yellow Sea near Qingdao (China), are described. The new species differs from the type H. stenocephala, inter alia, by the length of the dorsal bristles and the position of the pretransverse ventral cirri; from H. enigmatica by the number of caudal cirri; and from H. para-enigmatica spec. nov. - established for the H. enigmatica populations from the Yellow Sea - by the arrangement of the postoral ventral cirri and the cortical granulation. A key to the Hemigastrostyla species and some other 18-cirri hypotrichs is provided. Hemigastrostyla szaboi is fixed as type species of Heterooxytricha gen. nov. because the type population lacks the extra cirri which are characteristic for Hemigastrostyla. In addition, Oxytricha geleii is assigned to this new genus, whose species have, like many oxytrichids, 18 frontal-ventraltransverse cirri, but a Gonostomum dorsal kinety pattern. The old, large, and difficult genus Oxytricha is briefly reviewed, mainly on the basis of the dorsal kinety pattern. Very likely, only species with the Oxytricha pattern belong to this genus. Oxytricha marcili and O. pseudofurcata, which have the Urosomoida kinety pattern (i.e. kinety 3 fragmentation lacking), are transferred to Urosomoida which is, inter alia, defined by a more or less distinctly reduced number of ventral and transverse cirri. Some other Oxytricha species with this kinety pattern (O. islandica, O. lanceolata, O. pseudosimilis, O. setigera) are not transferred to Urosomoida, but preliminarily classified as incertae sedis in Oxytricha, because they have the full set of 18 cirri. The available molecular data on O. lanceolata indicate that this type of 18-cirri hypotrichs likely needs a genus of its own because O. lanceolata does not cluster with O. granulifera, type of this genus. The marine Actinotricha saltans, classified for a very long time in Oxytricha, seems to be a non-dorsomarginalian hypotrich according to molecular data, justifying the reactivation of the old genus Actinotricha. Oxytricha shii has a multiple dorsal kinety 3 fragmentation, three dorsomarginal rows, and the undulating membranes arranged in the Cyrtohymena pattern, strongly indicating that it is a member of the subgenus Cyrtohymena (Cyrtohymenides). This brief review is a further step to unravel the complicated systematics of the old, but still little-known genus Oxytricha. The following new combinations are made in this paper: Cyrtohymena (Cyrtohymenides) shii (Shi et al., 1997) comb. nov.; Heterooxytricha szaboi (Wilbert and Song, 2005) comb. nov.; Heterooxytricha geleii (Wilbert, 1986) comb. nov.; Urosomoida marcili (Paiva and Silva-Neto, 2004) comb. nov.; Urosomoida pseudofurcata (Berger, 1999) comb. nov.


Shao C.,Xi'an Jiaotong University | Li L.,China Agricultural University | Zhang Q.,CAS Yantai Institute of Coastal Zone Research | Song W.,Ocean University of China | Berger H.,Consulting Engineering Office for Ecology
Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology | Year: 2014

A hypotrichous ciliate, Paracladotricha salina n. g., n. sp., was discovered in hypersaline waters (salinity about 80‰) from Qingdao, China. Its morphology and some major ontogenetic stages were studied and the phylogenetic position was estimated using standard methods. Paracladotricha salina is characterized by a flexible, more or less slender body (size 50-120 × 20-35 μm), a gonostomatid oral apparatus, one short and two long frontoventral rows, four macronuclear nodules, almost completely reduced dorsal kineties 1-3, and a loss of several parts of the ciliature, namely, the slightly shortened ciliary row of the adoral membranelles, the paroral, and the buccal, the postoral and pretransverse ventral, the transverse, and the caudal cirri. The ontogenesis is rather simple: anlage II of both filial products and anlage III of the opisthe originate de novo, while anlagen IV and V are formed within the parental rows. This combination of features requires the establishment of a new genus, Paracladotricha, which is, according to the morphological data, closely related to Schmidingerothrix and Cladotricha. The small-subunit rRNA gene was sequenced, indicating that P. salina is, as also demonstrated by the oral apparatus, a member of the gonostomatids. We provide a first, vague hypothesis about the phylogenetic relationships of the Gonostomatidae, Cladotrichidae, and Schmidingerotrichidae. However, since molecular data of the type species of these higher taxa are lacking, their validity and relationships remain obscure. © 2014 The Authors The Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of International Society of Protistologists.


PubMed | Ocean University of China, Consulting Engineering Office for Ecology, King Saud University and Xi'an University of Science and Technology
Type: Journal Article | Journal: The Journal of eukaryotic microbiology | Year: 2016

A Chinese population of the little-known freshwater hypotrich Uroleptus longicaudatus was investigated with emphasis on its living morphology and infraciliature. The characteristic, tripartite body consists of a narrowed (cephalized) anterior portion, a slender trunk, and a long, slender, and strongly contractile tail occupying up to 30% of body length. Contracted specimens with a tail length of about 12% closely resemble Uroleptus limnetis which has, like U. longicaudatus, its type locality on the East Coast of the United States so that it cannot be excluded that these two species are synonymous. Thus, we propose to subsume these and few other little-known species, which are not clearly distinguishable at the present state of knowledge, as U. limnetis complex. The morphogenesis of U. longicaudatus proceeds as in most congeners. The phylogenetic analyses reveal that Uroleptus is a monophyletic group, but due to the lack of detailed morphological data of the populations sequenced so far, the relationships within this taxon remain obscure. For the objective determination of the tail length of hypotrichs, we propose the 1/3-method, which says that the tail commences at that body width which corresponds one-third of the maximum width. Paruroleptus ophryoglena Gelei, 1954 is transferred to Uroleptus: Uroleptus ophryoglena (Gelei, 1954) comb. nov.

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