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He W.,Harbin Normal University | He W.,ingenious targeting laboratory | Shi X.,Harbin Normal University | Shao C.,Ocean University of China | And 3 more authors.
Acta Protozoologica | Year: 2011

In 1988, we found a large (250-400 × 80-150 μm in protargol preparations) Uroleptus-like hypotrich in a freshwater pond in Harbin, China. We studied the morphology of non-dividers and the cell division using protargol impregnation. Since we disregarded live observations and due to the lack of a modern revision of the uroleptids, a final identification was not possible. A detailed comparison with the most similar limnetic Uroleptus-like hypotrichs and with Rigidothrix goiseri revealed that the Chinese population is very likely identical with Uroleptus magnificus [basionym Holosticha (Paruroleptus) magnificus Kahl, 1932], a very rare species possibly confined to limnetic, stagnant water bodies of the holarctic region. Besides the large size, main features of U. cf. magnificus are: (i) about 80 adoral membranelles; (ii) three or four inconspicuous transverse cirri; (iii) 5-8 dorsomarginal kineties; (iv) the oral primordium originates de novo left of the postoral midventral cirri; (v) the frontal-ventral-transverse cirri anlagen of the proter and the opisthe originate via primary primordia; (vi) the left frontal cirrus of the proter originates from the middle portion of the disorganizing parental paroral; (vii) the parental endoral becomes the undulating membrane anlage for the proter; and (viii) the frontoterminal cirri originate in the plesiomorphic manner, that is, from the rearmost anlage. A compilation reveals that 59 species, subspecies, etc. have been described in or assigned to Uroleptus and Paruroleptus, but only about 50% of them seem to be true uroleptids. Many species of this predominantly limnetic group are little known. Source

Huang J.,Ocean University of China | Chen Z.,Ocean University of China | Song W.,Ocean University of China | Berger H.,Consulting Engineering Office for Ecology
Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution | Year: 2014

Classifications of the Urostyloidea were mainly based on morphology and morphogenesis. Since molecular phylogeny largely focused on limited sampling using mostly the one-gene information, the incongruence between morphological data and gene sequences have risen. In this work, the three-gene data (SSU-rDNA, ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 and LSU-rDNA) comprising 12 genera in the "core urostyloids" are sequenced, and the phylogenies based on these different markers are compared using maximum-likelihood and Bayesian algorithms and tested by unconstrained and constrained analyses. The molecular phylogeny supports the following conclusions: (1) the monophyly of the core group of Urostyloidea is well supported while the whole Urostyloidea is not monophyletic; (2) Thigmokeronopsis and Apokeronopsis are clearly separated from the pseudokeronopsids in analyses of all three gene markers, supporting their exclusion from the Pseudokeronopsidae and the inclusion in the Urostylidae; (3) Diaxonella and Apobakuella should be assigned to the Urostylidae; (4) Bergeriella, Monocoronella and Neourostylopsis flavicana share a most recent common ancestor; (5) all molecular trees support the transfer of Metaurostylopsis flavicana to the recently proposed genus Neourostylopsis; (6) all molecular phylogenies fail to separate the morphologically well-defined genera Uroleptopsis and Pseudokeronopsis; and (7) Arcuseries gen. nov. containing three distinctly deviating Anteholosticha species is established. © 2013 The Authors. Source

Li L.,Ocean University of China | Huang J.,Ocean University of China | Song W.,Ocean University of China | Shin M.K.,University of Ulsan | And 2 more authors.
Acta Protozoologica | Year: 2010

The morphology, the infraciliature, some stages of cell division and physiological reorganization, and the SSU rRNA gene sequence of the little-known marine 18-cirri hypotrich Tachysoma rigescens (Kahl, 1932) Borror, 1972 [basionym Oxytricha (Tachysoma) rigescens], isolated from mariculture waters near Qingdao, China, were investigated. This rare species is characterized, inter alia, by narrowly spaced, small, colourless cortical granules and several conspicuous ring-shaped structures in the cytoplasm. The caudal cirri and the simple dorsal kinety pattern (three bipolar kineties) are probably plesiomorphic traits within the Hypotricha, the composition of the adoral zone of the proter from new and parental membranelles, as well as the presence of two 'extra' cirri behind the right marginal row strongly suggest a misclassification in Tachysoma. The SSU rRNA gene sequence data indicate that T. rigescens branches off rather basally in the Hypotricha tree, which supports the hypothesis that the 18-cirri pattern occurred very early, probably already in the last common ancestor of the Hypotricha. A detailed survey of the early branching 18-cirri hypotrichs and similar taxa (e.g. Trachelostyla pediculiformis, Hemigastrostyla enigmatica, Protogastrostyla pulchra) reveals that for T. rigescens a new genus (Apogastrostyla gen. nov.) has to be established, because there are important differences, inter alia, in the dorsal infraciliature. Besides the type species, A. rigescens comb. nov., which seems to be confined to the northern hemisphere according to the sparse faunistic data, a second marine species, A. szaboi comb. nov. (basionym Hemigastrostyla szaboi), so far only twice recorded from the Antarctic region, can be included. The Chinese population is fixed as neotype to define the species objectively, because no type material of A. rigescens is present and the original type locality is not known. The species name Tachysoma multinucleate is emended: Tachysoma multinucleatum nom. corr. Source

Shao C.,Xian University of Science and Technology | Song W.,Ocean University of China | Al-Rasheid K.A.S.,King Saud University | Berger H.,Consulting Engineering Office for Ecology | Berger H.,University of Salzburg
Acta Protozoologica | Year: 2011

The morphology, the infraciliature, and two stages of physiological reorganization of Hemigastrostyla elongata spec. nov., isolated from the Yellow Sea near Qingdao (China), are described. The new species differs from the type H. stenocephala, inter alia, by the length of the dorsal bristles and the position of the pretransverse ventral cirri; from H. enigmatica by the number of caudal cirri; and from H. para-enigmatica spec. nov. - established for the H. enigmatica populations from the Yellow Sea - by the arrangement of the postoral ventral cirri and the cortical granulation. A key to the Hemigastrostyla species and some other 18-cirri hypotrichs is provided. Hemigastrostyla szaboi is fixed as type species of Heterooxytricha gen. nov. because the type population lacks the extra cirri which are characteristic for Hemigastrostyla. In addition, Oxytricha geleii is assigned to this new genus, whose species have, like many oxytrichids, 18 frontal-ventraltransverse cirri, but a Gonostomum dorsal kinety pattern. The old, large, and difficult genus Oxytricha is briefly reviewed, mainly on the basis of the dorsal kinety pattern. Very likely, only species with the Oxytricha pattern belong to this genus. Oxytricha marcili and O. pseudofurcata, which have the Urosomoida kinety pattern (i.e. kinety 3 fragmentation lacking), are transferred to Urosomoida which is, inter alia, defined by a more or less distinctly reduced number of ventral and transverse cirri. Some other Oxytricha species with this kinety pattern (O. islandica, O. lanceolata, O. pseudosimilis, O. setigera) are not transferred to Urosomoida, but preliminarily classified as incertae sedis in Oxytricha, because they have the full set of 18 cirri. The available molecular data on O. lanceolata indicate that this type of 18-cirri hypotrichs likely needs a genus of its own because O. lanceolata does not cluster with O. granulifera, type of this genus. The marine Actinotricha saltans, classified for a very long time in Oxytricha, seems to be a non-dorsomarginalian hypotrich according to molecular data, justifying the reactivation of the old genus Actinotricha. Oxytricha shii has a multiple dorsal kinety 3 fragmentation, three dorsomarginal rows, and the undulating membranes arranged in the Cyrtohymena pattern, strongly indicating that it is a member of the subgenus Cyrtohymena (Cyrtohymenides). This brief review is a further step to unravel the complicated systematics of the old, but still little-known genus Oxytricha. The following new combinations are made in this paper: Cyrtohymena (Cyrtohymenides) shii (Shi et al., 1997) comb. nov.; Heterooxytricha szaboi (Wilbert and Song, 2005) comb. nov.; Heterooxytricha geleii (Wilbert, 1986) comb. nov.; Urosomoida marcili (Paiva and Silva-Neto, 2004) comb. nov.; Urosomoida pseudofurcata (Berger, 1999) comb. nov. Source

Shao C.,Xian Jiaotong University | Li L.,China Agricultural University | Zhang Q.,CAS Yantai Institute of Coastal Zone Research | Song W.,Ocean University of China | Berger H.,Consulting Engineering Office for Ecology
Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology | Year: 2014

A hypotrichous ciliate, Paracladotricha salina n. g., n. sp., was discovered in hypersaline waters (salinity about 80‰) from Qingdao, China. Its morphology and some major ontogenetic stages were studied and the phylogenetic position was estimated using standard methods. Paracladotricha salina is characterized by a flexible, more or less slender body (size 50-120 × 20-35 μm), a gonostomatid oral apparatus, one short and two long frontoventral rows, four macronuclear nodules, almost completely reduced dorsal kineties 1-3, and a loss of several parts of the ciliature, namely, the slightly shortened ciliary row of the adoral membranelles, the paroral, and the buccal, the postoral and pretransverse ventral, the transverse, and the caudal cirri. The ontogenesis is rather simple: anlage II of both filial products and anlage III of the opisthe originate de novo, while anlagen IV and V are formed within the parental rows. This combination of features requires the establishment of a new genus, Paracladotricha, which is, according to the morphological data, closely related to Schmidingerothrix and Cladotricha. The small-subunit rRNA gene was sequenced, indicating that P. salina is, as also demonstrated by the oral apparatus, a member of the gonostomatids. We provide a first, vague hypothesis about the phylogenetic relationships of the Gonostomatidae, Cladotrichidae, and Schmidingerotrichidae. However, since molecular data of the type species of these higher taxa are lacking, their validity and relationships remain obscure. © 2014 The Authors The Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of International Society of Protistologists. Source

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