Consultants in Veterinary Pathology Inc.

Murrysville, PA, United States

Consultants in Veterinary Pathology Inc.

Murrysville, PA, United States
SEARCH FILTERS
Time filter
Source Type

Morrison J.P.,Charles River Pathology Assoc. | Sharma A.K.,Covance | Rao D.,Esri | Pardo I.D.,Pfizer | And 3 more authors.
Toxicologic Pathology | Year: 2015

A half-day Society of Toxicologic Pathology continuing education course on "Fundamentals of Translational Neuroscience in Toxicologic Pathology" presented some current major issues faced when extrapolating animal data regarding potential neurological consequences to assess potential human outcomes. Two talks reviewed functional-structural correlates in rodent and nonrodent mammalian brains needed to predict behavioral consequences of morphologic changes in discrete neural cell populations. The third lecture described practical steps for ensuring that specimens from rodent developmental neurotoxicity tests will be processed correctly to produce highly homologous sections. The fourth talk detailed demographic factors (e.g., species, strain, sex, and age); physiological traits (body composition, brain circulation, pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic patterns, etc.); and husbandry influences (e.g., group housing) known to alter the effects of neuroactive agents. The last presentation discussed the appearance, unknown functional effects, and potential relevance to humans of polyethylene glycol (PEG)-associated vacuoles within the choroid plexus epithelium of animals. Speakers provided real-world examples of challenges with data extrapolation among species or with study design considerations that may impact the interpretability of results. Translational neuroscience will be bolstered in the future as less invasive and/or more quantitative techniques are devised for linking overt functional deficits to subtle anatomic and chemical lesions. © 2014 by The Author(s).


Bolon B.,Ohio State University | Garman R.H.,Consultants in Veterinary Pathology Inc. | Pardo I.D.,Pfizer | Jensen K.,U.S. Environmental Protection Agency | And 7 more authors.
Toxicologic Pathology | Year: 2013

The Society of Toxicologic Pathology charged a Nervous System Sampling Working Group with devising recommended practices to routinely screen the central nervous system (CNS) and peripheral nervous system (PNS) in Good Laboratory Practice-type nonclinical general toxicity studies. Brains should be weighed and trimmed similarly for all animals in a study. Certain structures should be sampled regularly: caudate/putamen, cerebellum, cerebral cortex, choroid plexus, eye (with optic nerve), hippocampus, hypothalamus, medulla oblongata, midbrain, nerve, olfactory bulb (rodents only), pons, spinal cord, and thalamus. Brain regions may be sampled bilaterally in rodents using 6 to 7 coronal sections, and unilaterally in nonrodents with 6 to 7 coronal hemisections. Spinal cord and nerves should be examined in transverse and longitudinal (or oblique) orientations. Most Working Group members considered immersion fixation in formalin (for CNS or PNS) or a solution containing acetic acid (for eye), paraffin embedding, and initial evaluation limited to hematoxylin and eosin (H&E)-stained sections to be acceptable for routine microscopic evaluation during general toxicity studies; other neurohistological methods may be undertaken if needed to better characterize H&E findings. Initial microscopic analyses should be qualitative and done with foreknowledge of treatments and doses (i.e., "unblinded"). The pathology report should clearly communicate structures that were assessed and methodological details. Since neuropathologic assessment is only one aspect of general toxicity studies, institutions should retain flexibility in customizing their sampling, processing, analytical, and reporting procedures as long as major neural targets are evaluated systematically. © 2013 by The Author(s).


Melis V.,University of Aberdeen | Zabke C.,Charité - Medical University of Berlin | Stamer K.,Charité - Medical University of Berlin | Magbagbeolu M.,Charité - Medical University of Berlin | And 17 more authors.
Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences | Year: 2015

A poorly understood feature of the tauopathies is their very different clinical presentations. The frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD) spectrum is dominated by motor and emotional/psychiatric abnormalities, whereas cognitive and memory deficits are prominent in the early stages of Alzheimer's disease (AD). We report two novel mouse models overexpressing different human tau protein constructs. One is a full-length tau carrying a double mutation [P301S/G335D; line 66 (L66)] and the second is a truncated 3-repeat tau fragment which constitutes the bulk of the PHF core in AD corresponding to residues 296-390 fused with a signal sequence targeting it to the endoplasmic reticulum membrane (line 1; L1). L66 has abundant tau pathology widely distributed throughout the brain, with particularly high counts of affected neurons in hippocampus and entorhinal cortex. The pathology is neuroanatomically static and declines with age. Behaviourally, the model is devoid of a higher cognitive phenotype but presents with sensorimotor impairments and motor learning phenotypes. L1 displays a much weaker histopathological phenotype, but shows evidence of neuroanatomical spread and amplification with age that resembles the Braak staging of AD. Behaviourally, the model has minimal motor deficits but shows severe cognitive impairments affecting particularly the rodent equivalent of episodic memory which progresses with advancing age. In both models, tau aggregation can be dissociated from abnormal phosphorylation. The two models make possible the demonstration of two distinct but nevertheless convergent pathways of tau molecular pathogenesis. L1 appears to be useful for modelling the cognitive impairment of AD, whereas L66 appears to be more useful for modelling the motor features of the FTLD spectrum. Differences in clinical presentation of AD-like and FTLD syndromes are therefore likely to be inherent to the respective underlying tauopathy, and are not dependent on presence or absence of concomitant APP pathology. © 2014 The Author(s).


Stump D.G.,WIL Research Laboratories LLC | Beck M.J.,WIL Research Laboratories LLC | Radovsky A.,WIL Research Laboratories LLC | Garman R.H.,Consultants in Veterinary Pathology Inc. | And 10 more authors.
Toxicological Sciences | Year: 2010

This study was conducted to determine the potential of bisphenol A (BPA) to induce functional and/or morphological effects to the nervous system of F1 offspring from dietary exposure during gestation and lactation according to the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development and U.S. Environmental Protection Agency guidelines for the study of developmental neurotoxicity. BPA was offered to female Sprague-Dawley Crl:CD(SD) rats (24 per dose group) and their litters at dietary concentrations of 0 (control), 0.15, 1.5, 75, 750, and 2250 ppm daily from gestation day 0 through lactation day 21. F1 offspring were evaluated using the following tests: detailed clinical observations (postnatal days [PNDs] 4, 11, 21, 35, 45, and 60), auditory startle (PNDs 20 and 60), motor activity (PNDs 13, 17, 21, and 61), learning and memory using the Biel water maze (PNDs 22 and 62), and brain and nervous system neuropathology and brain morphometry (PNDs 21 and 72). For F1 offspring, there were no treatment-related neurobehavioral effects, nor was there evidence of neuropathology or effects on brain morphometry. Based on maternal and offspring body weight reductions, the no-observed-adverse-effect level (NOAEL) for systemic toxicity was 75 ppm (5.85 and 13.1 mg/kg/day during gestation and lactation, respectively), with no treatment-related effects at lower doses or nonmonotonic dose responses observed for any parameter. There was no evidence that BPA is a developmental neurotoxicant in rats, and the NOAEL for developmental neurotoxicity was 2250 ppm, the highest dose tested (164 and 410 mg/kg/day during gestation and lactation, respectively). © The Author 2010. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Toxicology.


Garman R.H.,Consultants in Veterinary Pathology Inc. | Li A.A.,Exponent, Inc. | Kaufmann W.,Merck KGaA | Auer R.N.,University of Québec | Bolon B.,GEMpath Inc.
Toxicologic Pathology | Year: 2016

Neuropathology methods in rodent developmental neurotoxicity (DNT) studies have evolved with experience and changing regulatory guidance. This article emphasizes principles and methods to promote more standardized DNT neuropathology evaluation, particularly procurement of highly homologous brain sections and collection of the most reproducible morphometric measurements. To minimize bias, brains from all animals at all dose levels should be processed from brain weighing through paraffin embedding at one time using a counterbalanced design. Morphometric measurements should be anchored by distinct neuroanatomic landmarks that can be identified reliably on the faced block or in unstained sections and which address the region-specific circuitry of the measured area. Common test article-related qualitative changes in the developing brain include abnormal cell numbers (yielding altered regional size), displaced cells (ectopia and heterotopia), and/or aberrant differentiation (indicated by defective myelination or synaptogenesis), but rarely glial or inflammatory reactions. Inclusion of digital images in the DNT pathology raw data provides confidence that the quantitative analysis was done on anatomically matched (i.e., highly homologous) sections. Interpreting DNT neuropathology data and their presumptive correlation with neurobehavioral data requires an integrative weight-of-evidence approach including consideration of maternal toxicity, body weight, brain weight, and the pattern of findings across brain regions, doses, sexes, and ages. © The Author(s) 2015.


PubMed | Merck KGaA, Exponent, Inc., Consultants in Veterinary Pathology Inc., University of Montréal and GEMpath Inc.
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Toxicologic pathology | Year: 2016

Neuropathology methods in rodent developmental neurotoxicity (DNT) studies have evolved with experience and changing regulatory guidance. This article emphasizes principles and methods to promote more standardized DNT neuropathology evaluation, particularly procurement of highly homologous brain sections and collection of the most reproducible morphometric measurements. To minimize bias, brains from all animals at all dose levels should be processed from brain weighing through paraffin embedding at one time using a counterbalanced design. Morphometric measurements should be anchored by distinct neuroanatomic landmarks that can be identified reliably on the faced block or in unstained sections and which address the region-specific circuitry of the measured area. Common test article-related qualitative changes in the developing brain include abnormal cell numbers (yielding altered regional size), displaced cells (ectopia and heterotopia), and/or aberrant differentiation (indicated by defective myelination or synaptogenesis), but rarely glial or inflammatory reactions. Inclusion of digital images in the DNT pathology raw data provides confidence that the quantitative analysis was done on anatomically matched (i.e., highly homologous) sections. Interpreting DNT neuropathology data and their presumptive correlation with neurobehavioral data requires an integrative weight-of-evidence approach including consideration of maternal toxicity, body weight, brain weight, and the pattern of findings across brain regions, doses, sexes, and ages.


Hostnik E.T.,Ohio State University | Kube S.A.,VCA South Shore Animal Hospital | Jortner B.,Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University | Hager D.,Eagle Eye Radiology | Garman R.H.,Consultants in Veterinary Pathology Inc
Veterinary Pathology | Year: 2015

A 13-week-old male intact Poodle mix dog developed an acute onset of vestibular ataxia, tetraparesis, and vomiting. The patient presented ambulatory, tetraparetic, and ataxic with a head tilt to the left and a disconjugate nystagmus (rotary nystagmus with fast phase to the right in right eye and vertical nystagmus in left eye). There were absent postural reactions in the left pelvic and left thoracic limbs and decreased right-sided postural reactions. Magnetic resonance imaging demonstrated an intra-axial mass within the left midcaudal medulla oblongata. On gross dissection, there was a left-sided neoplasm in the medulla oblongata with surrounding hemorrhage. The histologic findings indicated that the mass was a pleomorphic xanthoastrocytoma. This tumor, an uncommon variant of an astrocytoma most often seen in children and young adult humans, has yet to be described in dogs. © The Author(s) 2014.


PubMed | Ohio State University, Pfizer, Covance, Merck KGaA and 3 more.
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Toxicologic pathology | Year: 2015

A half-day Society of Toxicologic Pathology continuing education course on Fundamentals of Translational Neuroscience in Toxicologic Pathology presented some current major issues faced when extrapolating animal data regarding potential neurological consequences to assess potential human outcomes. Two talks reviewed functional-structural correlates in rodent and nonrodent mammalian brains needed to predict behavioral consequences of morphologic changes in discrete neural cell populations. The third lecture described practical steps for ensuring that specimens from rodent developmental neurotoxicity tests will be processed correctly to produce highly homologous sections. The fourth talk detailed demographic factors (e.g., species, strain, sex, and age); physiological traits (body composition, brain circulation, pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic patterns, etc.); and husbandry influences (e.g., group housing) known to alter the effects of neuroactive agents. The last presentation discussed the appearance, unknown functional effects, and potential relevance to humans of polyethylene glycol (PEG)-associated vacuoles within the choroid plexus epithelium of animals. Speakers provided real-world examples of challenges with data extrapolation among species or with study design considerations that may impact the interpretability of results. Translational neuroscience will be bolstered in the future as less invasive and/or more quantitative techniques are devised for linking overt functional deficits to subtle anatomic and chemical lesions.


Pardo I.D.,Pfizer | Garman R.H.,Consultants in Veterinary Pathology Inc. | Weber K.,Harlan Laboratories Ltd. | Bobrowski W.F.,Pfizer | And 2 more authors.
Toxicologic Pathology | Year: 2012

For general toxicity studies, a technique was designed to consistently sample the most important neuroanatomic regions of the brain, spinal cord, and peripheral nerve of cynomolgus monkeys using a limited number of blocks and slides. Using the most rostral portion of the pons as a landmark, the entire fixed brain was cut dorsoventrally into cross-sectional slabs 4 mm in thickness. For microscopic evaluation, six blocks of the brain at the levels of the frontal pole, anterior commissure, rostral thalamus, caudal thalamus, middle cerebellum with brainstem, and occipital lobe were trimmed to fit in standard tissue cassettes. Cross- and oblique sections of the spinal cord including the dorsal root ganglion and dorsal and ventral nerve roots were obtained at the levels of C1-C4, T10-T12, and L1-L4. Cross- and longitudinal sections of the sciatic nerve were also obtained. This technique offers a consistent and reliable method to routinely sample most of the important regions of the central and peripheral nervous system of monkeys using ten blocks. This method is readily adaptable to other species of nonhuman primates, dogs, and minipigs and can be quickly learned by the technicians performing the trimming procedures. © 2012 by The Author(s).


Garman R.H.,Consultants in Veterinary Pathology Inc.
Toxicologic pathology | Year: 2011

The intent of this article is to assist pathologists inexperienced in examining central nervous system (CNS) sections to recognize normal and abnormal cell types as well as some common artifacts. Dark neurons are the most common histologic artifact but, with experience, can readily be distinguished from degenerating (eosinophilic) neurons. Neuron degeneration stains can be useful in lowering the threshold for detecting neuron degeneration as well as for revealing degeneration within populations of neurons that are too small to show the associated eosinophilic cytoplasmic alteration within H&E-stained sections. Neuron degeneration may also be identified by the presence of associated macroglial and microglial reactions. Knowledge of the distribution of astrocyte cytoplasmic processes is helpful in determining that certain patterns of treatment-related neuropil vacuolation (as well as some artifacts) represent swelling of these processes. On the other hand, vacuoles with different distribution patterns may represent alterations of the myelin sheath. Because brains are typically undersampled for microscopic evaluation, many pathologists are unfamiliar with the circumventricuar organs (CVOs) that represent normal brain structures but are often mistaken for lesions. Therefore, the six CVOs found in the brain are also illustrated in this article.

Loading Consultants in Veterinary Pathology Inc. collaborators
Loading Consultants in Veterinary Pathology Inc. collaborators