Journal of Exposure Science and Environmental Epidemiology | Year: 2017
Non-dietary ingestion is an important exposure pathway for children owing to their frequent hand-to-mouth and object-to-mouth activities involving soil and dust contacts. We used videotaping and the computer-based translating methods to quantify the mouthing activity information for 24 children ages 3 to <6 years old living in Taiwan. We also reviewed the entire mouthing activity data collected during the project to determine the lesser studied information on hand surface areas mouthed by children ages <6 years old. The median indoor hand-to-mouth and object-to-mouth frequencies were found to be 10 and 4.3 contacts/h, respectively. Hand-to-mouth and object-to-mouth contact frequencies used in exposure assessments for children ages 3 to <6 years old in this study were similar to the recommended values reported in United States. Exposure Factors Handbook for comparable age US children. The average fractions of the hand area mouthed for children 6 to <12 months, 1 to <2 years, 2 to <3 years, and 3 to <6 years old were 0.12, 0.12, 0.13, and 0.09, respectively. The fraction of hand area mouthed by children was found to be significantly and negatively correlated with their age. About half of the total hand-to-mouth contact events involved immersion of part of a hand or a finger into the mouth. The findings from this study extend the available mouthing activity information for 3 to <6 years old children and also provide new data for an Asian country, allowing comparison of results with western values collected mostly in the United States.Journal of Exposure Science and Environmental Epidemiology advance online publication, 25 January 2017; doi:10.1038/jes.2016.87. © 2017 Nature America, Inc., part of Springer Nature.
Antipode | Year: 2011
This article traces the creation of a market for carbon sequestration by trees under the Kyoto Protocol on climate change, describing the problems encountered by UN negotiators as they attempted to abstract, isolate, quantify and commodify a process akin to breathing, which takes place naturally everywhere, anyway. It starts with an overview of the history of the negotiations that defined the commodity and the rules to govern its trade, creating the scarcity conditions for the market to work. It then goes over the key problems encountered and how they were solved. The analysis draws attention to time and risk as critical elements in reproducing uneven development, and suggests that this new market can be understood as an instance of capital involution-that is, an instance where a narrow pattern persistently repeated leads to ever increasing complexity but, instead of evolving into something new, it generates further entrapment. © 2011 The Author Antipode © 2011 Editorial Board of Antipode.
Dellarco V.,U.S. Environmental Protection Agency |
Journal of Nutrition | Year: 2012
To advance the utility and predictability of safety evaluation, an integrated approach that relies on all existing knowledge to understand how agents perturb normal biological function or structure is needed to progress more focused evaluation strategies. The mode of action (MOA)-human relevance framework developed by the International Program for Chemical Safety and The International Life Sciences Institute provides a useful analytical approach where different lines of evidence (e.g., in vitro, in vivo) can be organized, linked, and integrated at different levels of biological organization into a more efficient, hypothesis-driven approach to safety evaluation. This framework provides a weight-of-evidence approach based on considerations for causality (as originally articulated by Bradford Hill), including dose response and temporal concordance, consistency, specificity, and biological plausibility and coherence. Once an animal MOA and its key events are established, qualitative and quantitative comparisons between experimental animals and humans are made based on the key events. This comparison enables a conclusion as to whether the MOA is likely operative in humans and, if so, whether it can result in a more refined hazard and dose-response assessment. This framework provides an important tool to promote and formalize the use of MOA data in safety evaluation regardless of whether the information comes from traditional or novel approaches, such as those recommended by the NRC in its 2007 report "Toxicity Testing in the 21st Century," which recommends moving away from traditional approaches of measuring adverse endpoints by using newer technologies to identify ways agents may considerably perturb cellular pathways to produce their toxicity. © 2012 American Society for Nutrition.
Applied Optics | Year: 2010
In this paper, the sensitivity control for manufacturing errors is treated from three aspects. A wavefrontbased sensitivity function is proposed, the effect of which is verified with the modulation transfer function (MTF)-based Monte Carlo simulation. Then, the direct optimization of the MTF-based Monte Carlo simulation result is proposed. Finally, the effect of the sensitivity control function to get better lens types is shown. © 2010 Optical Society of America.
IEEE Electrical Insulation Magazine | Year: 2013
Polymer is used in this article, but often nonceramic or composite is used in place of polymer. So, polymer insulators are synonymous with nonceramic or composite insulators. This article focuses on the development of suspension-type polymer insulators, used on overhead distribution and transmission lines, and on the present-day issues that limit their greater use. © 2006 IEEE.
Applied Optics | Year: 2012
In this paper, a rapid optimization method of cost-based tolerancing is proposed. An example shows that only a few cases of the Monte Carlo simulation are necessary to find the best balance of the yield and the tolerance cost for the practical tolerancing problem. © 2012 Optical Society of America.
Sensor Review | Year: 2014
Design/methodology/approach - Following an introduction, this paper first considers some of the motivations for using graphene in sensors. It then describes a selection of recently reported graphene nanosensors for detecting physical variables, gases, chemical species and biological agents. Finally, brief conclusions are drawn. © Emerald Group Publishing Limited.Purpose - This paper aims to provide details of recent developments in nanosensors based on graphene.Findings - Graphene exhibits a number of unique properties that make it an intriguing candidate for use in sensors. Research is still at a relatively early stage, but prototype sensors have been demonstrated which respond to numerous physical, molecular and biological variables. © Emerald Group Publishing Limited.Originality/value - This paper provides a timely review of the use of graphene in sensors. © Emerald Group Publishing Limited. © Emerald Group Publishing Limited.
IEEE Electrical Insulation Magazine | Year: 2013
Extruded cable systems are assembled on site. The quality of their components (cable lengths, joints, and terminations) is carefully verified by quality-acceptance tests in the factory (prequalification tests, type tests, and routine tests). These tests are completed by a quality-acceptance test in the field, which verifies the quality of the cable system under service conditions. After the successful commissioning, the cable system is handed over from the supplier to the user. During the decades of operation of the cable system, off-line diagnostic field tests including PD, dielectric measurements, or both are useful for condition assessment of the insulation. The complexity of diagnostic methods demands the application of knowledge rules and has not so stringent requirements to test voltages as qualityacceptance tests. Often the differences between quality-acceptance and diagnostic field tests are not clear. In the following, the suitability of the usual test voltages, applied for extruded cable systems in the field, will be investigated for both, for quality acceptance during commissioning and for condition assessment during operation. The comparison has to consider the remarkable differences of the design field strength of medium-voltage (MV) cables on the one and high-/extra-high-voltage (HV/EHV) cables on the other side. Often no quality-acceptance tests on MV cable systems are performed with separate test-voltage sources, but a great variety of diagnostic off-line tests is applied. The practice of MV cable systems should not simply be transferred to HV/ EHV cable systems. Therefore, this investigation is limited to HV/EHV cable systems, which are of increasing importance for power systems. It has to be mentioned that there is no sharp limit between the MV and HV/EHV range; it shall be assumed in the range of rated voltages between 50 and 72.5 kV. © 2006 IEEE.
Solvent Extraction and Ion Exchange | Year: 2013
Applicability of room temperature liquids (RTILs) as diluents in the solvent extraction of f-elements is reviewed. Characteristics of selected RTILs, important for such an application, are gathered. Properties tabulated are the melting and freezing points, density, mutual solubility with water, viscosity, surface tension, specific conductivity, and radiation stability. Properties such as environmental compatibility, toxicity, chemical and thermal stability, biodegradability, and chemical degradability imply that RTILs are not harmless to the environment or to work safety. The extraction efficiency and mechanism in systems involving RTILs is described, discussed, and compared with systems involving molecular diluents. Particularly assessed is the extraction of nitric acid by RTILs alone and TBP, the extraction of U(VI), Ce(IV), Pu(IV), Am(III), and lanthanides(III) by RTILs alone, the extraction of U(VI), Ce(IV), actinides(III,IV), and lanthanides(III) by solvating O-donors, the extraction of Eu(III) by a solvating N-donor, the extraction of lanthanides(III) and Am(III) by acidic extractants, and the extraction of actinides(III,IV) and lanthanides(III) by task specific ionic liquids. © 2013 Copyright Taylor & Francis Group, LLC.
Journal of Hydrodynamics | Year: 2010
The use of newly available tools in propeller design is discussed. It is stated that new tools are too much used to imitate experimental results. The paper takes a step back and investigates new approaches to ship propeller design in which new tools are better integrated or calibrated. © 2010 Publishing House for Journal of Hydrodynamics.