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Hwang B.-G.,National University of Singapore | Thomas S.R.,Construction Industry Institute | Caldas C.H.,University of Texas at Austin
KSCE Journal of Civil Engineering | Year: 2012

The pharmaceutical industry is unique in its procedures and methods of manufacture, and thus requires a distinct project management approach. With the consideration of specific facility delivery processes of the industry, assessment of pharmaceutical construction project performance is required as a first step of improving their performance. To do so, industry-specific metrics tuned to the characteristics of the industry are developed, followed by establishment of a hierarchical structure enabling pharmaceutical projects to be properly grouped for performance assessment. Using collected data for producing metric values, descriptive and statistical analyses are performed to assess pharmaceutical project cost, schedule, and dimensional performances by three major types: bulk manufacturing, secondary manufacturing, and laboratory. By utilizing these industry-specific metrics and analyses results, the industry can find solutions to more effectively manage cost, schedule, and other resources for the delivery of pharmaceutical construction projects. © 2012 Korean Society of Civil Engineers and Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.


Hwang B.-G.,National University of Singapore | Thomas S.R.,Construction Industry Institute | Caldas C.H.,University of Texas at Austin
International Journal of Project Management | Year: 2010

Pharmaceutical facility construction projects tend to exhibit uniqueness in procedures and methods of deliveries, and thus require a distinct project management approach. Based on inputs from five leading pharmaceutical companies, a set of cost, schedule, and dimensional metrics were developed and tested. First, a hierarchical structure of pharmaceutical project types was established as a framework enabling projects to be properly grouped and compared. Next, within the framework, industry-specific metrics tailored to the processes were produced. For better industry acceptance, surveys and analysis on the developed metrics were finally conducted. The result shows that the framework and metrics have considerable value as an efficient tool for measuring pharmaceutical construction project performance, ultimately providing a chance to improve performance for the industry. By employing the metrics, the industry can find solutions to more effectively manage cost, schedule, and other resources for the delivery of pharmaceutical construction projects. © 2009 Elsevier Ltd and IPMA.


Liao P.-C.,Tsinghua University | Thomas S.R.,Construction Industry Institute | O'Brien W.J.,University of Texas at Austin | Dai J.,Construction Industry Institute | Mulva S.P.,Construction Industry Institute
Journal of Civil Engineering and Management | Year: 2012

The benchmarking of engineering productivity can assist in the identification of inefficiencies and thus can be critical to cost control. Recognizing the importance of engineering productivity measurement, the Construction Industry Institute (CII) developed the Engineering Productivity Metric System (EPMS) composed of a series of hierarchical metrics with standard definitions suitable for measuring engineering productivity at various levels. While the EPMS can be used to assess engineering productivity at multiple levels within a discipline, it cannot produce an overall project level productivity measurement due to the underlying method of defining productivity. Previous studies have attempted to develop other metrics to assess engineering productivity at the project level; however, these methods did not create metrics suitable for benchmarking. To overcome these limitations, this study developed a standardization approach using "z-scores" to aggregate engineering productivity measurement from actual data collected from 112 projects provided by CII member companies. This method produces a metric with a project level view of engineering productivity. It allows owners and engineering firms to summarize engineering productivity at both the discipline level and at the project level. The method illustrates a comprehensive and innovative procedure to develop a metric for summary of productivity metrics with different underlying outputs, thus laying the foundation for future analyses and studies. Copyright © 2012 Vilnius Gediminas Technical University (VGTU) Press Technika.


Liao P.-C.,Tsinghua University | O'Brien W.J.,University of Texas at Austin | Thomas S.R.,Construction Industry Institute | Dai J.,Construction Industry Institute | Mulva S.P.,Construction Industry Institute
Journal of Management in Engineering | Year: 2011

Engineering performance has a major impact on subsequent project phases, such as procurement and construction, and thus, has the potential to affect the overall project outcome. This study utilizes metrics and a database from the Construction Industry Institute (CII) benchmarking and metrics program to investigate relationships between factors thought to affect direct engineering labor productivity during detailed engineering. Collaborating with industry practitioners, quantitative assessments were analyzed with industry input through various CII committee meetings and industry forums. Significant correlations are found between engineering productivity and project size, project type, project priority, and phase involvement. Correlations are also found between degree of modularization, funded front-end planning effort, and quality management and engineering productivity. These findings extend and, in some cases, contradict previous research. © 2011 American Society of Civil Engineers.


Sylvie J.R.,Page Southerland Page | Thomas S.R.,Construction Industry Institute | Thomas S.R.,University of Texas at Austin | Lee S.-H.,PJCOVA Consulting Group | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Construction Engineering and Management | Year: 2013

This paper documents the second phase of a three-phase research effort to develop and deploy best practices for project security on industrial construction projects. Specifically, it details the development and interpretation and initial validation of the security rating index, which provides a means of quantitatively assessing the level of implementation of security practices for a project. The security rating index must be used in the context of threat and consequence levels. The threat level quantifies the intention and capability of an adversary to undertake detrimental actions, whereas the consequence level quantifies potential impacts of a security breach over the facility life cycle. This approach allows comparisons to be made between projects with similar security considerations. The security rating index is the first tool to integrate and quantify risk, consequence, and security best practice implementation. It can also be used as a checklist to integrate the appropriate security measures in the early phases of project planning. Once sufficient data are available, the security rating index will provide a means by which companies can gauge the level of security integration of their own projects against similar projects within the industry. © 2013 American Society of Civil Engineers.


Liao P.-C.,Tsinghua University | Thomas S.R.,Construction Industry Institute | O'brien W.J.,University of Texas at Austin
Journal of Civil Engineering and Management | Year: 2013

Information dependency may be the most important key for managing information exchange to reduce project risks. Studies to date have not successfully discovered objective and quantitative surrogate to measure information dependency. This paper suggests an approach to measure information dependency with the productivity relationships among various disciplines for heavy industrial engineering projects. As part of a Construction Industry Institute (CII) study, the authors identified the information exchange pattern of engineering disciplines. Based on the patterns, the authors discovered the information dependency that various engineering disciplines had with their productivity relationships and conducted a survey afterwards for validation. Both results show significant and consistent evidence suggesting that: 1) information of equipment and piping disciplines is statistically dependent rather than the other paired disciplines; and 2) productivity relationship can be a legitimate surrogate to measure information dependency between equipment and piping disciplines. As such, this study enlightens a research trajectory for improvement of engineering productivity. Copyright © 2013 Vilnius Gediminas Technical University (VGTU) Press.


Kang Y.,Florida International University | Dai J.,FLUOR | Mulva S.,Construction Industry Institute | Choi J.,University of Texas at Austin
Construction Research Congress 2014: Construction in a Global Network - Proceedings of the 2014 Construction Research Congress | Year: 2014

This paper presents a recent initiative to revolutionize the benchmarking of capital projects. In the past 17 years, Construction Industry Institute (CII) has become a major source for the benchmarking of capital projects. Although the value of benchmarking has been recognized by CII member companies, they find it difficult to implement it because of various issues. To address these issues, CII began working with industry experts to develop a new performance assessment system. This new system, known as the 10-10 program, consists of input measures, such as planning, organizing, leading, and controlling and output measures, such as cost and capacity. This paper describes the new benchmarking theories deployed in the creation of CII's new benchmarking system. This paper explains what the new measures are and how they were chosen. The 10-10 program is substantially different from previous attempts to benchmark project performance by pairing high-value metrics with a minimum effort concerning data collection. The new system is capable of measuring absolute metrics for specific industry sectors. Importantly, users of CII's 10-10 program can assess their projects at the conclusion of each of five phases from planning through startup. As a result, project management teams will be able to take proactive actions to enhance project results. It is expected that the new system will promote enhanced performance assessment through external benchmarking. © 2014 American Society of Civil Engineers.


Kang Y.,Florida International University | Dai J.,Construction Industry Institute | Mulva S.P.,Construction Industry Institute
Construction Research Congress 2012: Construction Challenges in a Flat World, Proceedings of the 2012 Construction Research Congress | Year: 2012

Benchmarking is a systematic process of measuring an organization's performance against recognized leaders for the purpose of determining best practices that lead to superior performance. Benchmarking has been widely used by the private sector of the U.S. construction industry to improve their delivery of capital projects. While some studies have investigated the benchmarking of public transportation projects (e.g., highways and bridges), most of these focused solely on operations. This paper examines benchmarking efforts for public transportation projects delivery. Subsequently, this analysis is used to provide a framework of the opportunities and potential challenges inherent to benchmarking transportation projects delivery. This paper contributes to the foundational development of benchmarking standards for public transportation projects. © 2012 ASCE.


Dai J.,Construction Industry Institute | Goodrum P.M.,University of Kentucky
Journal of Construction Engineering and Management | Year: 2011

The influx of Hispanic workers helped the U.S. construction industry alleviate its shortage of craft workers in the last decade. In 2009, Hispanics accounted for nearly a quarter (22.5%) of the construction workforce in the United States. However, no research has been conducted to examine how various factors influence Hispanic craft workers' productivity. This paper analyzes the data from a nationwide survey to obtain craft workers' perspective on construction productivity. The respondents were categorized as Spanish- or English-speaking workers according to their declared primary language, irrespective of their ethnic background. The findings reveal that Spanish- and English-speaking craft workers generally agreed on the priority of the factors affecting labor productivity. However, Spanish-speaking workers rated factors associated with supervisor direction, safety, and labor more severely than English-speaking craft workers. Meanwhile, English-speaking craft workers perceived factors related to engineering drawing management as being more detrimental to productivity than did Spanish-speaking craft workers. Specifically, in comparison with English-speaking craft workers, Spanish-speaking craft workers experienced more severe issues with communicating with their supervisors, pay and monetary bonus for good performance, and lack of training on safety, health, and skills. These findings should be valuable for project management to effectively improve labor productivity of their Spanish-speaking craft workforce. © 2011 American Society of Civil Engineers.

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