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Vijayendra S.V.N.,Indian Central Food Technological Research Institute | Shamala T.R.,A Constituent Laboratory of Council of Scientific and Industrial Research
Critical Reviews in Biotechnology | Year: 2014

Microorganisms synthesize intracellular, structural and extracellular polymers also referred to as biopolymers for their function and survival. These biopolymers play specific roles as energy reserve materials, protective agents, aid in cell functioning, the establishment of symbiosis, osmotic adaptation and support the microbial genera to function, adapt, multiply and survive efficiently under changing environmental conditions. Viscosifying, gelling and film forming properties of these have been exploited for specific significant applications in food and allied industries. Intensive research activities and recent achievements in relevant and important research fields of global interest regarding film forming microbial biopolymers is the subject of this review. Microbial polymers such as pullulan, kefiran, bacterial cellulose (BC), gellan and levan are placed under the category of exopolysaccharides (EPS) and have several other functional properties including film formation, which can be used for various applications in food and allied industries. In addition to EPS, innumerable bacterial genera are found to synthesis carbon energy reserves in their cells known as polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs), microbial polyesters, which can be extruded into films with excellent moisture and oxygen barrier properties. Blow moldable biopolymers like PHA along with polylactic acid (PLA) synthesized chemically in vitro using lactic acid (LA), which is produced by LA bacteria through fermentation, are projected as biodegradable polymers of the future for packaging applications. Designing and creating of new property based on requirements through controlled synthesis can lead to improvement in properties of existing polysaccharides and create novel biopolymers of great commercial interest and value for wider applications. Incorporation of antimicrobials such as bacteriocins or silver and copper nanoparticles can enhance the functionality of polymer films especially in food packaging applications either in the form of coatings or wrappings. Use of EPS in combinations to obtain desired properties can be evaluated to increase the application range. Controlled release of active compounds, bioactive protection and resistance to water can be investigated while developing new technologies to improve the film properties of active packaging and coatings. An holistic approach may be adopted in developing an economical and biodegradable packaging material with acceptable properties. An interdisciplinary approach with new innovations can lead to the development of new composites of these biopolymers to enhance the application range. This current review focuses on linking and consolidation of recent research activities on the production and applications of film forming microbial polymers like EPS, PHA and PLA for commercial applications. © 2014 Informa Healthcare USA, Inc. All rights reserved: reproduction in whole or part not permitted. Source


Chanukya B.S.,Indian Central Food Technological Research Institute | Chanukya B.S.,A Constituent Laboratory of Council of Scientific and Industrial Research | Rastogi N.K.,Indian Central Food Technological Research Institute | Rastogi N.K.,A Constituent Laboratory of Council of Scientific and Industrial Research
Separation and Purification Technology | Year: 2013

The present work deals with the study of extracting alcohol from aqueous alcohol solution and subsequently from real solutions by evaluating the effect of two different membrane phases; hexane and heptane to form liquid emulsion membrane. Liquid emulsion membrane, in the present work is made up of hexane or heptane as the membrane phase, Span 80 as the surfactant, and distilled water as the inner aqueous solution. The effect of various extraction parameters such as surfactant concentration, treatment ratio, membrane to inner aqueous phase ratio, stirring speed and stirring time on the stability of liquid emulsion membrane and on the efficiency of extraction were studied. The results obtained showed the highest extraction efficiency of 51.45% or 49.5% when hexane or heptane were used as membrane phase, respectively. Studies on swelling behavior of emulsion were conducted and results showed that swelling increases with stirring time up to a certain point. Alcohol was also extracted from grape wine at optimized extraction conditions. The repeated extraction resulted in 92.9% extraction at fourth stage. Alcohol was also extracted from color extract solutions of different sources, where 90% and more extraction were observed at fourth stage of repeated extraction from all sources. © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. Source


Nandini K.E.,Indian Central Food Technological Research Institute | Nandini K.E.,A Constituent Laboratory of Council of Scientific and Industrial Research | Rastogi N.K.,Indian Central Food Technological Research Institute | Rastogi N.K.,A Constituent Laboratory of Council of Scientific and Industrial Research
Biotechnology Progress | Year: 2010

The extraction of lactoperoxidase (EC 1.11.1.7) from whey was studied using single step reverse micelles-assisted extraction and compared with reverse micellar extraction. The reverse micelles-assisted extraction resulted in extraction of contaminating proteins and recovery of lactoperoxidase in the aqueous phase leading to its purification. Reverse micellar extraction at the optimized condition after forward and backward steps resulted in activity recovery of lactoperoxidase and purification factor of the order of 86.60% and 3.25-fold, respectively. Whereas reverse micelles-assisted extraction resulted in higher activity recovery of lactoperoxidase (127.35%) and purification factor (3.39-fold). The sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) profiles also evidenced that higher purification was obtained in reverse micelles-assisted extraction as compared of reverse micellar extracted lactoperoxidase. © 2010 American Institute of Chemical Engineers. Source


Chanukya B.S.,Indian Central Food Technological Research Institute | Chanukya B.S.,A Constituent Laboratory of Council of Scientific and Industrial Research | Kumar M.,Indian Central Food Technological Research Institute | Kumar M.,A Constituent Laboratory of Council of Scientific and Industrial Research | And 2 more authors.
Separation and Purification Technology | Year: 2013

The present work deals with the optimization of the conditions for the pertraction of lactic acid from aqueous solution using liquid emulsion membrane. A central composite rotatable design was employed to study the effect of stripping solution (Na2CO3) concentration (1.0-5.0% w/v), ratio of strip to membrane phase (Vs/Vm) (1.0-5.0), ratio of volume of feed to emulsion (Vf/Ve) (1.0-5.0) and contact time (2.0-15.0 min) on the pertraction. The response surface models with high coefficients of determination values (R2 = 0.95) were fitted to the experimental data, which indicated that the polynomial response models fitted well for describing the % pertraction of lactic acid as well as % membrane phase recovery. Based on the design, the optimal conditions for obtaining higher pertraction were stripping phase (Na2CO3) concentration ranging from 1.58% to 3.46% w/v, ratio of strip to membrane phase and the ratio of volume of feed to emulsion 2.0, contact time ranging from 12.11 to 14.71 min. The graphical optimization of superimposed contour plots fulfilled the conditions to obtain % lactic acid recovery (Y1) ≥ 95% and % membrane phase recovery (Y2) ≥ 80%. The study demonstrated that response surface methodology can be utilized for deriving the optimum conditions for pertraction of lactic acid from aqueous solutions. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. Source

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