A pilot epidemiological survey of the characteristics of the exposure of immigrants to pharmaceutical prescriptions [Osservatorio sulla prescrizione farmaceutica alla popolazione immigrata. Caratterizzazione delle coorti e analisi della variabilità regionale]
Andretta M.,Societa Italiana di Farmacia Ospedaliera e dei Servizi Farmaceutici Delle Aziende Sanitarie |
Cinconze E.,Consorzio Interuniversitario |
Costa E.,Societa Italiana di Farmacia Ospedaliera e dei Servizi Farmaceutici Delle Aziende Sanitarie |
Da Cas R.,Instituto Superiore Of Sanita |
And 4 more authors.
Giornale Italiano di Farmacia Clinica | Year: 2011
Introduction. Information about immigrants' conditions in Italy are mixed and not sufficiently directed to describe the health status. The project "Observatory on pharmaceutical prescription to the immigrant population" is aimed at describing the access to medicines by the immigrants in Italy, in order to foster the development of health policies consistent with health needs. The present paper is aimed at describing the demographic characteristics of this population by stratifying it in well-defined subpopulations. Material and methods. The standard administrative database from ARNO-CINECA and Umbria Region, which provide the information on drug exposure of the NHS users for the year 2010. Results. In the six Regions examined, immigrants are 10.5% of the overall population: 6.9% born overseas low income countries (LIC); 1.2% born in Italy but LIC citizens; 0.4% immigrants from high income countries, 2.1% new Italian citizens. Their distribution is not homogeneous among Regions, being very low in the South and maximum in Umbria. The age distribution differs among the cohorts: in particular, 96.4% of immigrants born in Italy, but LIC citizens, are under 18 years of age, while in the other cohorts the prevalence of the under 18 ranges from 8% to 10%. This feature corresponds obviously to different drug consumption patterns. Discussion and conclusion. The expected variability of drug exposure associated with age stratification and background regional denominator reminds. Critical importance, for future more analytical investigation, of non-considering the general label of "immigrants" as an homogenous category to be described in terms of means and absolute percentages.
Cavallo G.,Polytechnic of Milan |
Metrangolo P.,Polytechnic of Milan |
Metrangolo P.,VTT Technical Research Center of Finland |
Pilati T.,Polytechnic of Milan |
And 4 more authors.
RSC Advances | Year: 2016
Novel D-π-A push-pull chromophores were synthesized in good yields by CuAAc coupling of 4-X-2,3,5,6-tetrafluorophenyl-1-azides (X = H, Br, I) with 4-ethynyl-dimethylaniline. Thanks to the self-complementary binding sites at the molecular ends, the iodo derivative self-organizes in the solid state forming head-to-tail halogen-bonded one-dimensional unlimited chains. The second-order NLO properties of the iodo compound have been investigated by the solution-phase electric field induced second-harmonic generation method (EFISH). © The Royal Society of Chemistry 2016.
Palmieri L.,Instituto Superiore Of Sanita |
Rielli R.,Consorzio Interuniversitario |
Dematte L.,Consorzio Interuniversitario |
Donfrancesco C.,Instituto Superiore Of Sanita |
And 11 more authors.
Giornale Italiano di Cardiologia | Year: 2010
Background. The Italian National Prevention plan includes 10-year cardiovascular risk (CR) assessment of the Italian general population aged 35-69 years using the CUORE Project risk score. A national training program for general practitioners (GPs) was launched by the Ministry of Health in 2003. GPs were encouraged to collect data on risk factors and risk assessment and to contribute to the CUORE Project Cardiovascular Risk Observatory (CRO). The aim of this analysis is to demonstrate the feasibility and effectiveness of risk assessment in primary care. Methods. The cuore.exe software, free of charge for GPs and easily downloadable from the CUORE Project web site (www.cuore.iss.it), is the frame for the GP data collection. The CRO provides a platform to analyze data collected on risk assessment and risk factors, and compare results at regional and national level in order to support health policy makers in their decision process. Results. From January 2007 to April 2009, 2858 GPs have downloaded the cuore.exe software; 102 113 risk assessments were sent to the CRO based on risk factors profile of 87 556 persons (3617 persons had more than 1 risk assessment). Mean level of CR was 3.1% in women and 8.4% in men; 30% of men and 65% of women were at low risk (CR <3%), 9% of men and 0.4% of women were found at high risk (CR >20%). Among those with at least 2 risk assessments, 8% shifted to a lower class of risk after 1 year. Mean level of systolic and diastolic blood pressure decreased by about 1% in 1 year; total cholesterol more than 2%, and prevalence of smokers decreased by about 3% in the second risk assessment. Conclusions. These data demonstrate that risk assessment can be included as a first step of prevention in primary care. The CUORE Project individual score is expected to become an important tool for GPs to assess their patients' CR, to promote primary prevention, and to focus attention to healthy lifestyle adoption. © 2010 AIM Publishing Srl.
Mignone A.,University of Turin |
Flock M.,SAP |
Flock M.,Max Planck Institute for Astronomy |
Stute M.,University of Tübingen |
And 2 more authors.
Astronomy and Astrophysics | Year: 2012
Context. Explicit numerical computations of hypersonic or super-fast differentially rotating disks are subject to the time-step constraint imposed by the Courant condition, according to which waves cannot travel more than a fraction of a cell during a single time-step update. When the bulk orbital velocity largely exceeds any other wave speed (e.g., sound or Alfvén), as computed in the rest frame, the time step is considerably reduced and an unusually large number of steps may be necessary to complete the computation. Aims. We present a robust numerical scheme to overcome the Courant limitation by improving and extending the algorithm previously known as FARGO (fast advection in rotating gaseous objects) to the equations of magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) using a more general formalism. The proposed scheme conserves total angular momentum and energy to machine precision and works in cartesian, cylindrical, or spherical coordinates. The algorithm has been implemented in the next release of the PLUTO code for astrophysical gasdynamics and is suitable for local or global simulations of accretion or proto-planetary disk models. Methods. By decomposing the total velocity into an average azimuthal contribution and a residual term, the algorithm approaches the solution of the MHD equations through two separate steps corresponding to a linear transport operator in the direction of orbital motion and a standard nonlinear solver applied to the MHD equations written in terms of the residual velocity. Since the former step is not subject to any stability restriction, the Courant condition is computed only in terms of the residual velocity, leading to substantially larger time steps. The magnetic field is advanced in time using the constrained transport method in order to fulfill the divergence-free condition. Furthermore, conservation of total energy and angular momentum is enforced at the discrete level by properly expressing the source terms in terms of upwind Godunov fluxes available during the standard solver. Results. Our results show that applications of the proposed orbital-advection scheme to problems of astrophysical relevance provides, at reduced numerical cost, equally accurate and less dissipative results than standard time-marching schemes. © 2012 ESO.
Rastrelli G.,University of Florence |
Carter E.L.,University of Manchester |
Ahern T.,University of Manchester |
Finn J.D.,University of Manchester |
And 18 more authors.
Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism | Year: 2015
Context: Secondary hypogonadism is common in aging men; its natural history and predisposing factors are unclear. Objectives: The objectives were 1) to identify factors that predispose eugonadal men (T ≥ 10.5 nmol/L) to develop biochemical secondary hypogonadism (T < 10.5 nmol/L; LH ≤ 9.4 U/L) and secondary hypogonadal men to recover to eugonadism; and 2) to characterize clinical features associated with these transitions. Design: The study was designed as a prospective observational general population cohort survey. Setting: The setting was clinical research centers. Participants: The participants were 3369 community-dwelling men aged 40-79 years in eight European centers. Intervention: Interventions included observational follow-up of 4.3 years. Main Outcome Measure: Subjects were categorized according to change/no change in biochemical gonadal status during follow-up as follows: persistent eugonadal (n = 1909), incident secondary hypogonadal (n = 140), persistent secondary hypogonadal (n = 123), and recovered from secondary hypogonadism to eugonadism (n = 96). Baseline predictors and changes in clinical features associated with incident secondary hypogonadism and recovery from secondary hypogonadism were analyzed by regression models. Results: The incidence of secondary hypogonadism was 155.9/10 000/year, whereas 42.9% of men with secondary hypogonadism recovered to eugonadism. Incident secondary hypogonadism was predicted by obesity (body mass index ≥ 30 kg/m2; odds ratio [OR] = 2.86 [95% confidence interval, 1.67; 4.90]; P < .0001), weight gain (OR = 1.79 [1.15; 2.80]; P = .011), and increased waist circumference (OR = 1.73 [1.07; 2.81], P = .026; and OR = 2.64 [1.66; 4.21], P < .0001, for waist circumference 94-102 and ≥102 cm, respectively). Incident secondary hypogonadal men experienced new/worsening sexual symptoms (low libido, erectile dysfunction, and infrequent spontaneous erections). Recovery from secondary hypogonadism was predicted by nonobesity (OR = 2.28 [1.21; 4.31]; P = .011), weight loss (OR = 2.24 [1.04; 4.85]; P = .042), normal waist circumference (OR = 1.93 [1.01; 3.70]; P = .048), younger age (< 60 y; OR = 2.32 [1.12; 4.82]; P = .024), and higher education (OR = 2.11 [1.05; 4.26]; P = .037), but symptoms did not show significant concurrent improvement. Conclusion: Obesity-related metabolic and lifestyle factors predispose older men to the development of secondary hypogonadism, which is frequently reversible with weight loss. Copyright © 2015 by the Endocrine Society.
Beghetto V.,University of Venice |
Scrivanti A.,University of Venice |
Bertoldini M.,University of Venice |
Aversa M.,Consorzio Interuniversitario |
And 2 more authors.
Synthesis (Germany) | Year: 2015
The fragrances (S)-(+)- and (R)-(-)-canthoxal [(S)-(+)- and (R)-(-)-3-(4-methoxyphenyl)-2-methylpropanal] and (+)- and (-)-Silvial® [(+)- and (-)-3-(4-isobutylphenyl)-2-methylpropanal] have been synthesized in high enantiopurity via a simple four-step strategy starting from the commercially available 4-substituted benzaldehydes. The key synthetic step is the catalytic asymmetric hydrogenation of the appropriate 3-aryl-2-methylacrylic acid which has been carried out employing an in situ prepared ruthenium/axially chiral phosphine catalyst (up to 98% ee). The olfactory activity of the single enantiomers has been evaluated.
Bottoni A.,University of Bologna |
Lombardo M.,University of Bologna |
Miscione G.P.,University of Bologna |
Montroni E.,University of Bologna |
And 3 more authors.
ChemCatChem | Year: 2013
We have recently proposed the empirical concept of electrosteric activation to explain the improved catalytic performances observed for a series of ion-tagged catalysts compared to the parent tag-free structures. Here, the results of a combined experimental and computational investigation on the asymmetric aldol reaction between cyclohexanone and benzaldehyde, catalyzed by a family of tag-free and ionic-tagged prolines, are presented. Whereas diastereo- and enantioselectivities remain very high in all cases examined, the ion-tagged catalyst cis-4-(2-(3-methyl-imidazol-3-ium-1-yl)acetoxy)-proline bistriflimide, cis-7, displays a remarkably high activity compared to its tagged trans analogue and to the tag-free catalysts cis and trans-4-(2-phenylacetoxy)-proline 8. A computational investigation of ion-tagged and tag-free model systems shows that the transition state involving cis-7 is stabilized by a complex interplay of hydrogen bonds (in particular, those involving the counter ion oxygen atoms and the hydrogen atoms of the ionic tag), π-stacking interactions involving the aldehyde phenyl ring, and similar π interactions between the proline carboxyl group and the imidazole ring. The overall effect of these interactions accounts for the observed enhanced activity. Stack attack! The asymmetric aldol reaction between cyclohexanone and benzaldehyde in the presence of tagged 4-hydroxy-prolines is modeled to elucidate the empirical concept of electrosteric activation, introduced to account for the much higher activity of cis-ion-tagged prolines. A complex interplay of hydrogen bonds and π-stacking interactions is found to give rise to the observed enhanced activity. © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.
Paci G.,Consorzio Interuniversitario |
Pedrazzi G.,Consorzio Interuniversitario |
Turra R.,Consorzio Interuniversitario
11th International Workshop on Image Analysis for Multimedia Interactive Services, WIAMIS 10 | Year: 2010
A method to automatically annotate video items with semantic metadata is presented. The method has been developed in the context of the Papyrus project to annotate documentary-like broadcast videos with a set of relevant keywords using automatic speech recognition (ASR) transcripts as a primary complementary resource. The task is complicated by the high word error rate (WER) of the ASR for this kind of videos. For this reason a novel relevance criterion based on domain information is proposed. Wikipedia is used both as a source of metadata and as a linguistic resource for disambiguating keywords and for eliminating the out of topic/out of domain keywords. Documents are annotated with relevant links toWikipedia pages, concepts definitions, synonyms, translations and concepts categories.
Bertazzo M.,Consorzio Interuniversitario |
Fiumana F.,Consorzio Interuniversitario |
Paci G.,Consorzio Interuniversitario
Proceedings - 2010 IEEE International Symposium on Multimedia, ISM 2010 | Year: 2010
The L2L (Live to e-Learning) service is described: the service allows a semi-automatic transformation of live lectures into e-learning activities ready for the publication and delivery through an e-learning platform. The service has been designed to address the needs of a consortium of universities, balancing the requirements of each university and the need to contain costs. A single centralised Digital Asset Management (DAM) system based on the open source platform MediaMosa is used to handle all the multimedia content and metadata. A plug-in provides the integration of the DAM system with the open source learning management system Moodle. The overall architecture is open and modular allowing both the deployment of different service models and the seamless re-use of the digital content in different contexts (e.g.: e-learning platforms, web portals, WebTV). © 2010 IEEE.
Quintavalla A.,University of Bologna |
Lanza F.,University of Bologna |
Montroni E.,University of Bologna |
Montroni E.,Consorzio Interuniversitario |
And 2 more authors.
Journal of Organic Chemistry | Year: 2013
An efficient and highly enantioselective Michael addition of nitroalkanes to 3-ylidene oxindoles is described, mediated by thiourea-based bifunctional organocatalysts. The stereochemistry at Cα and C β centers is perfectly controlled, and the intermediate C-3 enolate is trapped with a second Michael acceptor. The developed one-pot three-component consecutive reactions generate up to four contiguous stereocenters, including the C-3 all-carbon quaternary center, in a perfectly defined configuration. The conversion of the β-nitro oxindole into the corresponding β-amino derivative discloses synthetically useful transformations, exploitable to generate pharmaceutically attractive molecular targets. © 2013 American Chemical Society.