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Bordenave B.,BGB Consultance | Lehir F.,Conservatoire Botanique National de Brest | Lorans M.,University Of Kourou
Revue d'Ecologie (La Terre et la Vie) | Year: 2012

The elaboration of a first list of the most threatened species of the overseas territory of French Guyana was undertaken in 2009 by the Association for Botanical Conservation in French Guiana in collaboration with the National Botanical Conservatory of Brest. Carried out in synergy with the updating of the species list for Natural Areas of Ecological, Faunistic and Floritic Interests supervised by the Region Science Council for Natural Heritage, this work includes 97 vascular plants, 18 of which can be considered as threatened in the state of current knowledge, according to the IUCN criteria which are recommended by the Federation of National Botanical Conservatories. Among these 18 taxa, threatened because of their rarity and the fragility of their natural habitats, 17 are already protected by a 2001 ministry decree and one is from a new genus, Hekkingia bordenavei; nine of these appear to be of high concern for conservation: Cleistes grandifiora (Orchidaceae), Cornutia pubescens (Verbenaceae), Antirhea triflora (Rubiaceae), Himathantus drasticus (Apocynaceae), Axonopus oiapocensis (Poaceae), Psychotria granvillei (Rubiaceae), Eriocaulon guyanense (Eriocaulaceae) along with two palm species subject to National Action Plans for their conservation since 2009, Astrocaryum minus and Bactris nancibaensis. This study also contributes to the on-going "regional Red List" of the French Guiana flora.

Lambert E.,MMS | Desmots D.,LPO | Le Bail J.,Conservatoire Botanique National de Brest | Mouronval J.-B.,Association Nacicca | Felzines J.-C.,Institute Of Botanique Herbiers Universitaires Of Clermont Ferrand Ibhuc
Acta Botanica Gallica | Year: 2013

Tolypella salina R. Cor. is a Charophyte only known from some French and Iberian stations. Its rarity and the specific richness of the salt marshes where it grows, on the Atlantic and Mediterranean coasts, have led to the proposal to add this species to the French list of protected plants. A survey of stations was realized on the Atlantic coast (Noirmoutier, Guérande) between 2010 and 2013 to complete the distribution map of this taxon. The aim of this work is to improve the knowledge of this plants biology and its ecological environment. It appears that the development of this species differs between stations, and also from one year to the next, a phenomenon due to the instability of its living environment (hydrological and salinity conditions, etc.). Phytosociological considerations related to the subassociation tolypelletosum salinae are added. Some recommendations are proposed for the management of these sites, taking into account the human activities there, in order to maintain the salt marsh mosaic that is necessary for the conservation of Tolypella salina. © 2013 Copyright Société botanique de France.

Rapinel S.,Conservatoire Botanique National de Brest | Rapinel S.,University of Rennes 2 - Upper Brittany | Clement B.,French National Center for Scientific Research | Magnanon S.,Conservatoire Botanique National de Brest | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Environmental Management | Year: 2014

Identification and mapping of natural vegetation are major issues for biodiversity management and conservation. Remotely sensed data with very high spatial resolution are currently used to study vegetation, but most satellite sensors are limited to four spectral bands, which is insufficient to identify some natural vegetation formations. The study objectives are to discriminate natural vegetation and identify natural vegetation formations using a Worldview-2 satellite image. The classification of the Worldview-2 image and ancillary thematic data was performed using a hybrid pixel-based and object-oriented approach. A hierarchical scheme using three levels was implemented, from land cover at a field scale to vegetation formation. This method was applied on a 48km2 site located on the French Atlantic coast which includes a classified NATURA 2000 dune and marsh system. The classification accuracy was very high, the Kappa index varying between 0.90 and 0.74 at land cover and vegetation formation levels respectively. These results show that Wordlview-2 images are suitable to identify natural vegetation. Vegetation maps derived from Worldview-2 images are more detailed than existing ones. They provide a useful medium for environmental management of vulnerable areas. The approach used to map natural vegetation is reproducible for a wider application by environmental managers. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd.

Godefroid S.,National Botanic Garden of Belgium | Godefroid S.,Vrije Universiteit Brussel | Godefroid S.,Roosevelt University | Piazza C.,Conservatoire botanique national de Corse | And 18 more authors.
Biological Conservation | Year: 2011

Reintroduction of native species has become increasingly important in conservation worldwide for recovery of rare species and restoration purposes. However, few studies have reported the outcome of reintroduction efforts in plant species. Using data from the literature combined with a questionnaire survey, this paper analyses 249 plant species reintroductions worldwide by assessing the methods used and the results obtained from these reintroduction experiments. The objectives were: (1) to examine how successful plant species reintroductions have been so far in establishing or significantly augmenting viable, self-sustaining populations in nature; (2) to determine the conditions under which we might expect plant species reintroductions to be most successful; (3) to make the results of this survey available for future plant reintroduction trials. Results indicate that survival, flowering and fruiting rates of reintroduced plants are generally quite low (on average 52%, 19% and 16%, respectively). Furthermore, our results show a success rate decline in individual experiments with time. Survival rates reported in the literature are also much higher (78% on average) than those mentioned by survey participants (33% on average). We identified various parameters that positively influence plant reintroduction outcomes, e.g., working in protected sites, using seedlings, increasing the number of reintroduced individuals, mixing material from diverse populations, using transplants from stable source populations, site preparation or management effort and knowledge of the genetic variation of the target species. This study also revealed shortcomings of common experimental designs that greatly limit the interpretation of plant reintroduction studies: (1) insufficient monitoring following reintroduction (usually ceasing after 4 years); (2) inadequate documentation, which is especially acute for reintroductions that are regarded as failures; (3) lack of understanding of the underlying reasons for decline in existing plant populations; (4) overly optimistic evaluation of success based on short-term results; and (5) poorly defined success criteria for reintroduction projects. We therefore conclude that the value of plant reintroductions as a conservation tool could be improved by: (1) an increased focus on species biology; (2) using a higher number of transplants (preferring seedlings rather than seeds); (3) taking better account of seed production and recruitment when assessing the success of reintroductions; (4) a consistent long-term monitoring after reintroduction. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd.

Sarasan V.,Royal Botanic Gardens Kew | Buord S.,Conservatoire Botanique National de Brest | Pellicer J.,Royal Botanic Gardens Kew | Sanchez M.,Royal Botanic Gardens Kew | And 2 more authors.
Acta Physiologiae Plantarum | Year: 2016

Habitat fragmentation and invasive alien species contribute to genetic bottlenecks and the threat of extinction of many endemic species of Mauritius, part of the Madagascan and Indian Ocean biodiversity hotspot. The genus Cylindrocline has two species, C. commersonii (critically endangered) and C. lorencei (extinct in the wild). The last living specimens of C. lorencei disappeared in the wild after the recorded collecting of seeds in 1982 by Conservatoire Botanique National de Brest (CBN Brest). Embryo rescue was used as a method to germinate these seeds and the seedlings raised this way were shared by CBN Brest with Royal Botanic Gardens Kew (RBG Kew) as part of an exchange programme in 2001. Mature plants both at CBN Brest and RBG Kew stopped producing viable seeds and this has made the long-term conservation of C. lorencei even more difficult. Seeds of C. commersonii collected from the wild in 2010 have a very low viability while ex situ grown C. commersonii produce non-viable seeds. Molecular studies conducted in C. lorencei using amplified fragment length polymorphisms (AFLP) showed no genetic variability among remaining individuals. Two samples of C. commersonii showed a very small amount of genetic variability. The variability between the two species was well within the limits commonly found within species or between closely related species and the long-term conservation of the genus requires a radical (to a degree) approach to avoid its extinction. The importance of novel approaches for restoration and long-term conservation are discussed. © 2015, Franciszek Górski Institute of Plant Physiology, Polish Academy of Sciences, Kraków.

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