Conservation International Philippines

Diliman Primero, Philippines

Conservation International Philippines

Diliman Primero, Philippines
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Weeks R.,James Cook University | Alino P.M.,University of the Philippines at Diliman | Atkinson S.,Wildlife Conservation Society | Beldia II. P.,Conservation International Philippines | And 21 more authors.
Coastal Management | Year: 2014

The Coral Triangle Marine Protected Area System aspires to become a region-wide, comprehensive, ecologically representative and well-managed system of marine protected areas (MPAs) and MPA networks. The development of this system will proceed primarily through the implementation of ecological, social, and governance MPA networks at the sub-national scale. We describe six case studies that exemplify different approaches taken to develop MPA networks in the Coral Triangle region at different scales: Nusa Penida in Indonesia; Tun Mustapha Park in Malaysia; Kimbe Bay in Papua New Guinea; Verde Island Passage in the Philippines; The Lauru Ridges to Reefs Protected Area Network in Choiseul, Solomon Islands; and Nino Konis Santana Park in Timor Leste. Through synthesis of these case studies, we identify five common themes that contributed to successful outcomes: (1) the need for multi-stakeholder and cross-level management institutions; (2) the value of integrating cutting-edge science with local knowledge and community-based management; (3) the importance of building local capacity; (4) using multiple-use zoning to balance competing objectives; and (5) participation in learning and governance networks. These lessons will be invaluable in guiding future efforts to expand the Coral Triangle Marine Protected Area System, and provide important insights for MPA practitioners elsewhere. © 2014 Copyright © Rebecca Weeks, Porfirio M. Aliño, Scott Atkinson, Pacifico Beldia Ii, Augustine Binson, Wilfredo L. Campos, Rili Djohani, Alison L. Green, Richard Hamilton, Vera Horigue, Robecca Jumin, Kay Kalim, Ahsanal Kasasiah, Jimmy Kereseka, Carissa Klein, Lynette Laroya, Sikula Magupin, Barbara Masike, Candice Mohan, Rui Miguel Da Silva Pinto, Agnetha Vave-Karamui, Cesar Villanoy, Marthen Welly, and Alan T. White. Published with license by Taylor & Francis.

Lucking R.,Field Museum | Rivas Plata E.,University of Illinois at Chicago | Kalb K.,Lichenologisches Institute Neumarkt | Common R.S.,534 Fenton St. | And 2 more authors.
Lichenologist | Year: 2011

The new genus Halegrapha is introduced, with six species (five new species and one new combination) from Australia, the Philippines, Malaysia, Kenya, Mexico, and the United States: H. chimaera Rivas Plata & Lücking (type species; Philippines), H. floridana Common & Lücking (United States: Florida), H. intergrapha Hale ex Lücking (Malaysia), H. kenyana Kalb & Lücking (Kenya), H. mexicana A. B. Peña & Lücking (Mexico), and H. mucronata (Stirt.) Lücking (Australia). The genus resembles Graphis morphologically in the strongly carbonized, black lirellae and white-grey thallus strongly encrusted with calcium oxalate crystals, but has a Phaeographis-type hymenium (clear in two species) and ascospores, making it a chimera between the two genera. Molecular data suggest the genus to be closely related to Phaeographis and allies but genetically distinct from any of the genera currently recognized, including Platygramme. © 2011 British Lichen Society.

Brown R.M.,University of Kansas | Diesmos A.C.,Herpetology Section | Duya M.V.,Conservation International Philippines | Garcia H.J.D.,Conservation International Philippines | Rico E.L.B.,Wildlife Conservation Society
Journal of Herpetology | Year: 2010

We describe a new species of Luperosaurus from Mt. Mantalingajan, southern Palawan Island, Philippines. The new species is distinguished from all other species of Luperosaurus by the combination of its large body size (81.3 mm for the single male specimen), near complete absence of interdigital webbing, absence of cutaneous expansions on limbs except for a minute flap on the posterior margins of the hind limbs, the presence of differentiated, moderately enlarged chin shields, 40 precloacofemoral pore-bearing scales, the limitation of scattered flattened dorsal tubercles to only the posterior portions of the torso, absence of spinose or recurved ornamental tubercles on the head and nuchal region, and convex to posteriorly raised tubercles clustered at the posterior margins of caudal tail annuli. Because the new species shares features with species in both species of Luperosaurus and Gekko, we compare the new species to (and distinguish it from) both genera. The new species is distinguished from all Southeast Asian Gekko by the combination of its smaller body size, relatively short, stout limbs, presence of only moderately enlarged, slightly imbricate ventral body scales, differentiated postmentals not highly elongate, dorsal body tubercles limited to posterior trunk and not arranged in rows, absence of enlarged, spinose tubercles on the limbs and tail, and tail encircled by small scales (enlarged subcaudals absent). The new species further emphasizes the biogeographic distinctiveness (from Sundaland fauna) and level of vertebrate endemism of Palawan Island and underscores the degree to which the biodiversity of the Philippines is not fully understood. © 2010 Society for the Study of Amphibians and Reptiles.

Gurney G.G.,James Cook University | Gurney G.G.,University of Tasmania | Melbourne-Thomas J.,Australian Antarctic Division | Melbourne-Thomas J.,University of Tasmania | And 3 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2013

Climate change has emerged as a principal threat to coral reefs, and is expected to exacerbate coral reef degradation caused by more localised stressors. Management of local stressors is widely advocated to bolster coral reef resilience, but the extent to which management of local stressors might affect future trajectories of reef state remains unclear. This is in part because of limited understanding of the cumulative impact of multiple stressors. Models are ideal tools to aid understanding of future reef state under alternative management and climatic scenarios, but to date few have been sufficiently developed to be useful as decision support tools for local management of coral reefs subject to multiple stressors. We used a simulation model of coral reefs to investigate the extent to which the management of local stressors (namely poor water quality and fishing) might influence future reef state under varying climatic scenarios relating to coral bleaching. We parameterised the model for Bolinao, the Philippines, and explored how simulation modelling can be used to provide decision support for local management. We found that management of water quality, and to a lesser extent fishing, can have a significant impact on future reef state, including coral recovery following bleaching-induced mortality. The stressors we examined interacted antagonistically to affect reef state, highlighting the importance of considering the combined impact of multiple stressors rather than considering them individually. Further, by providing explicit guidance for management of Bolinao's reef system, such as which course of management action will most likely to be effective over what time scales and at which sites, we demonstrated the utility of simulation models for supporting management. Aside from providing explicit guidance for management of Bolinao's reef system, our study offers insights which could inform reef management more broadly, as well as general understanding of reef systems. © 2013 Gurney et al.

Mamauag S.S.,University of the Philippines at Diliman | Alino P.M.,University of the Philippines at Diliman | Martinez R.J.S.,University of the Philippines at Diliman | Muallil R.N.,University of the Philippines at Diliman | And 6 more authors.
Fisheries Research | Year: 2013

Vulnerability assessment (VA) is increasingly developed and utilized in various sectors and fields of society. VA provides a better understanding of the interactions among system, pressures, and threats, which serves as a basis for targeted adaptation strategies. The framework or tool named tool for understanding resilience of fisheries (VA-TURF) was developed to assess the vulnerability of the coastal fisheries ecosystems in the tropics to climate change. VA-TURF has three major components, namely, fisheries, reef ecosystem, and socio-economics. Although each component has intrinsic properties, the three components are strongly interrelated. Indicators associated to sensitivity, exposure, and adaptive capacity were developed for each component of TURF. The exposure variable used was wave. VA-TURF uses information obtained through rapid assessments except for the reef ecosystem component. The analytical approach for integrating scores is straightforward and devoid of highly sophisticated mathematical methods. The utility of VA-TURF primarily considers the fishers of a coastal community (barangay) as the major stakeholder, thereby facilitating familiarization and community ownership of the tool. VA-TURF was demonstrated in all the coastal barangays of two island municipalities (Lubang and Looc, Occidental Mindoro, Philippines) located along the Verde Island Passage, which has the world's highest marine shore fish biodiversity. Local stakeholders such as fishers, barangay leaders, residents, and local executive staff of the two municipalities participated in the process of scoring and determining the vulnerability of the sites during a series of workshops. The local-level fisheries vulnerability assessment framework developed encourages community-level actions and provides opportunities for strategic actions and scaling-up of efforts at various governance levels. © 2013 Elsevier B.V.

Cruz-Trinidad A.,FISHBASE Information and Research Group | Alino P.M.,University of the Philippines at Diliman | Geronimo R.C.,Conservation International Philippines | Cabral R.B.,University of the Philippines at Diliman
Coastal Management | Year: 2014

Maintaining ecosystem services of coral reefs, sustainable fishing, and improved food security are the three higher level outcomes of the Coral Triangle Initiative on Coral Reefs, Fisheries and Food Security (CTI-CFF). Food security is an obvious concern of the CTI-CFF because of 130 million people dependent on fish resources for food, income, and livelihoods, and also because it provides 11.3% (19.1 million tons) to global fisheries production from capture fisheries and aquaculture. Yet, anthropogenic stressors, especially overfishing, threaten the ecosystems that support food production. Fish supply deficits and undernourishment are observed in varying degrees across the CTI-CFF countries to be further exacerbated by increasing populations, increasing demand for fish from developed economies, unabated coastal development, and climate change. Short-term and urgent strategies to improve food security focus on arresting continued deterioration of coral reefs and fisheries to improve availability of fish, stabilize ecosystem services, and improve incomes at the local level. Wealth-focused and welfare-based approaches to achieve food security at various governance levels are proposed. © 2014 Copyright Taylor and Francis Group, LLC.

Muallil R.N.,University of the Philippines at Diliman | Muallil R.N.,Mindanao State University | Mamauag S.S.,University of the Philippines at Diliman | Cabral R.B.,University of the Philippines at Diliman | And 2 more authors.
Marine Policy | Year: 2014

Managing small-scale fisheries in a developing country like the Philippines is very challenging because of high pressures from expanding fishing population, poverty and lack of alternative options. Thus, resource-focused fisheries management initiatives such as marine protected area (MPA) establishment will likely result in further marginalization of the poor fishers which could pose more serious problems in coastal communities. In this study, the status of small-scale fisheries in 44 coastal towns in the Philippines was assessed using FISHDA (Fishing Industries' Support in Handling Decisions Application), a simple decision support tool which requires minimal or easily-generated data. Results showed that 68% (30 out of 44) of the studied towns have unsustainable fisheries unless 58% of their fishing grounds are protected from all fishing activities. Alternatively, 53% of the active fishers in towns with unsustainable fisheries must totally stop fishing to avert fishery collapse. Alarming as it may sound, this is still an underestimate as catches incurred by the highly efficient and destructive illegal fishing activities such as blast, poison and large-scale fishing, which are reported to be still rampant in many coastal areas in the Philippines, were not accounted for in this study. This study demonstrated that MPAs alone may not be enough to avert fishery collapse even if MPA size is increased from the current 3% to 15% of the municipal waters, i.e. up to 15. km from the shore, as required by the Philippine law. Various challenges confronting the fishery and important recommendations to address them are further discussed. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.

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