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Winterbottom R.,Royal Ontario Museum | Winterbottom R.,University of Toronto | Erdmann M.V.,Conservation International Indonesia | Erdmann M.V.,California Academy of Sciences | Cahyani N.K.D.,Udayana University
Zootaxa | Year: 2014

Three new species of Trimma are described from various localities in Indonesia. All three can be readily identified from their live, freshly collected, or preserved colouration. Trimma meranyx n. sp. is further distinguished from other species by the possession of 8-9 scales in the predorsal midline, up to three rows of (usually) cycloid scales on the opercle, two scales at the posterodorsal border of the cheek, a very slightly elongate second dorsal spine which only just reaches the spine or anterior rays of the second dorsal fin, unbranched pectoral fin rays, a fifth pelvic fin ray that branches once and is 64-85% the length of the fourth ray, and a full basal membrane connecting the inner branches of the two fifth pelvic rays. The dark red (live) or black posterior half of the caudal peduncle with large white spots straddling the dorsal and ventral midlines just anterior to the first procurrent caudal fin rays is the diagnostic colour character. The species is known from North Sulawesi, West Papua (Raja Ampat and Fakfak), and the south-eastern tip of Papua New Guinea, with possible records from the Philippines and Vanuatu. Trimma pajama n. sp. has 6 scales in the predorsal midline, two ctenoid scales along the dorsal margin of the opercle, a slightly elongate second dorsal spine reaching posteriorly to the base of the spine or first ray of the second dorsal fin, unbranched pectoral fin rays, a fifth pelvic ray with a single branch point and which is 58-72% the length of the fourth ray, and a full basal membrane connecting the inner branches of the two fifth pelvic rays. The live, freshly collected and preserved colour pattern of alternating dark and light stripes on the head and most of the body (except the posterior half of the caudal peduncle) is diagnostic. It is currently known from West Papua (Raja Ampat and Fakfak) and the southern tip of Papua New Guinea, with possible records from Kalimantan (Indonesia), Palau, the Hermit Is (Papua New Guinea) and the Solomon Islands. Trimma zurae n. sp. has 8-9 scales in the predorsal midline, usually a single row of cycloid scales along the upper border of the opercle, 11 anterior and 9 posterior transverse scale rows, no elongated spines in the first dorsal fin, 9 dorsal and 8 anal fin rays, the middle rays of the pectoral fin branched, a single branch in the fifth pelvic fin ray which is 65-76% the length of the fourth ray and a reduced basal membrane of < 20% the length of the fifth ray. The eye-diameter sized black ocellated spot between the first to fifth spines of the first dorsal fin is diagnostic, as are the pupil-diameter sized orange spots on the nape, opercle and posterodorsal part of the cheek. It is currently known only from a single locality just west of Manado, Sulawesi. Copyright © 2014 Magnolia Press.

Winterbottom R.,Royal Ontario Museum | Winterbottom R.,University of Toronto | Winterbottom R.,Udayana University | Erdmann M.V.,Conservation International Indonesia | And 2 more authors.
Zootaxa | Year: 2014

A new species of Trimma, T. helenae, is described from the southeastern lagoon at Penemu Island off the southwest coast of Waigeo, Raja Ampat, Indonesia. The new species has a unique colour pattern when alive, consisting of a yellow anterior half and red posterior half, with four small white spots along the midline of the dorsal and ventral surfaces of the caudal peduncle. It is also the only species of the genus to have a nasal sac that is flush with the snout surface (not raised above the level of the snout or only represented by a nasal pit), and which lacks a raised rim to the posterior nasal pore. Trimma helenae belongs to a group of 12 valid nominal species defined by having a broad bony interorbital region (width 80- 100% of pupil diameter), but differs from all of but three of these in having only cycloid scales in the midline and on the sides of the nape. The other members of the group have mostly ctenoid scales in this region. © 2014 Magnolia Press.

Huffard C.L.,Conservation International Indonesia | Saarman N.,University of California at Santa Cruz | Hamilton H.,California Academy of Sciences | Simison W.,California Academy of Sciences
Biological Journal of the Linnean Society | Year: 2010

The 'Mimic Octopus'. Thaumoctopus mimicus Norman & Hochberg, 2005 exhibits a conspicuous primary defence mechanism (high-contrast colour pattern during 'flatfish swimming') that may involve facultative imperfect mimicry of conspicuous and/or inconspicuous models, both toxic and non-toxic (Soleidae and Bothidae). Here, we examine relationships between behavioural and morphological elements of conspicuous flatfish swimming in extant octopodids (Cephalopoda: Octopodidae), and reconstructed ancestral states, to examine potential influences on the evolution of this rare defence mechanism. We address the order of trait distribution to explore whether conspicuous flatfish swimming may be an exaptation that usurps a previously evolved form of locomotion for a new purpose. Contrary to our predictions, based on the relationships we examined, flatfish swimming appears to have evolved concurrently with extremely long arms, in a clade of sand-dwelling species. The conspicuous body colour pattern displayed by swimming T. mimicus may represent a secondary adaptation potentially allowing for mimicry of a toxic sole, improved disruptive coloration, and/or aposematic coloration. © 2010 The Linnean Society of London.

Huffard C.L.,Conservation International Indonesia | Godfrey-Smith P.,Harvard University
Molluscan Research | Year: 2010

We present observations of mating by Octopus tetricus Gould, 1852 and Amphioctopus marginatus (Taki, 1964) in the wild. Males of both species mated in the open using the 'reach' position, however one male O. tetricus also incorporated the 'mount' position when copulating with a smaller female. A small male Octopus tetricus copulated by stretching the hectocotylus (= mating arm) over rugged terrain, to a larger female. Direct evidence confirms the existence of inter-sexual aggression during mating in this species. We observed a male A. marginatus mate at close proximity to the smaller female, with minimal stretching of the hectocotylus, and with no evidence of aggression. © 2010 Malacological Society of Australasia & Society for the Study of Molluscan Diversity.

Williams B.L.,New Mexico State University | Lovenburg V.,University of California at Berkeley | Huffard C.L.,Conservation International Indonesia | Caldwell R.L.,University of California at Berkeley
Chemoecology | Year: 2011

Some pelagic marine larvae possess anti-predator chemical defenses. Occasionally, toxic adults imbue their young with their own defensive cocktails. We examined paralarvae of the greater blue-ringed octopus (Hapalochlaena lunulata) for the deadly neurotoxin tetrodotoxin (TTX), and if present, whether TTX conferred protection to individual paralarvae. Paralarvae of H. lunulata possessed 150 ± 17 ng TTX each. These paralarvae appeared distasteful to a variety of fish and stomatopod predators, yet food items spiked with 200 ng TTX were readily consumed by predators. We conclude that TTX alone does not confer individual protection to paralarvae of H. lunulata, and that they possess an alternative defense. In larger doses, tetrodotoxin is a deterrent to the predatory stomatopod Haptosquilla trispinosa (mean dose = 3.97 μg/g). This corresponds to 12-13 paralarvae per predator based on the TTX levels of the clutch we examined. Thus, the basic assumption that individual paralarvae of H. lunulata are defended by TTX alone was disproved. Instead, functionality of TTX levels in paralarvae may arise through alternative selective pathways, such as deterrence to parasites, through kin selection, or against predator species not tested here. © 2011 Springer Basel AG.

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