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Saenz L.,Betty and Gordon Moore Center for Science | Farrell T.,Wildlife Conservation Society | Olsson A.,Asia Pacific Regional Office | Turner W.,Betty and Gordon Moore Center for Science | And 7 more authors.
Global Ecology and Conservation | Year: 2016

Freshwater is arguably one of Earth's most threatened natural resources, on which more than 7 billion people depend. Pressures on freshwater resources from infrastructure, resource development, agricultural pollution and deforestation are mounting, particularly in developing countries. To date, conservation responses such as Protected Areas (PAs) have not typically targeted freshwater ecosystems and their services, and thus little is known about the effectiveness of these efforts in protecting them. This paper proposes and pilots an innovative freshwater services metrics framework to quantify the representation of potential freshwater services in PAs under conditions of scarce data, with a pilot application for Cambodia. Our results indicate that conservation actions have more effectively represented potential freshwater regulation services than potential freshwater provisioning services, with major rivers remaining generally unprotected. Results from the framework are then used to propose a series of context and region specific management options to improve the conservation of freshwater services in Cambodia. There is an acute need for such management options, as the country's food security depends largely on important freshwater ecosystems such as the Tonle Sap Lake and the deep water pools systems of the Mekong River. The framework proposed can be applied in other countries or large river basins to explore the degree of representation of freshwater services within PAs systems, under conditions of sparse data. © 2016.


Valencia-Aguilar A.,Conservation Leadership Program Fellow | Cortes-Gomez A.M.,University of Santiago de Cali | Ruiz-Agudelo C.A.,Conservation International Colombia
International Journal of Biodiversity Science, Ecosystems Services and Management | Year: 2013

Human welfare depends directly or indirectly on the services provided by ecosystems. Amphibians and reptiles represent a high proportion of global species diversity and include species that are widely distributed throughout the world and play a variety of roles that benefit humans. The aim of this study was to identify and describe the ecosystem services provided by amphibians and reptiles in Neotropical ecosystems to evaluate the contribution of these highly diverse groups to human welfare. We conducted a literature review of articles and books from databases and university libraries and collected data from 106 studies. Amphibians and reptiles contributed directly and indirectly to the four types of ecosystem services: provisioning, regulating, cultural, and supporting. Most available studies reported the use of direct services from reptiles and indirect services from amphibians. Although eight ecosystem services were identified, most studies focused on reptiles as seed dispersers and protein sources. Biological pest control and bioturbation were the most widely studied services obtained from amphibians. Further research are necessary to understand the ecological functions involving amphibians and reptiles and their importance in the provision of key ecosystem services for human well-being. © 2013 Copyright Taylor and Francis Group, LLC.


Pinzon J.,Conservation International Colombia | Pinzon J.,University of Alberta | Benavides L.,George Washington University | Sabogal A.,Centro Internacional Of Fisica
Zootaxa | Year: 2010

We have revised all the specimens of Araneidae from the Colombian Amazon Region in the Arachnological Collection of the Instituto de Ciencias Naturales at the Universidad Nacional de Colombia (ICN), in addition to the specimens collected between 2000 and 2004 by the authors in the lower Caquetá and Apaporis rivers (Amazonas and Vaupés, Colombia). A total of 77 new records for Araneidae in the Colombian Amazon are reported; 26 of these species are new records for the country and the region in addition to 15 more species known for Colombia but newly recorded in the region, the distribution of the remaining 36 species is expanded within the region. The genera Encyosaccus Simon 1865 (E. sexmaculatus Simon 1895), Hingstepeira Levi 1995 (H. folisecens Hingston 1932) and Micrepeira Schenkel 1953 (M. fowleri Levi 1995 and M. tubulofasciens Hingston 1932) are recorded for the first time in Colombia. From this revision, it is evident the great amount of new information available in museum collections. Due to the strategic geographic position of Colombia, species inventories in different localities of the ColombianAmazon Region are important to fill distributional gaps of many species in South America. This work contributes to the knowledge of geographic distribution patterns of orb-weaving species in Colombia and in the entire Amazon Region. © 2010 Magnolia Press.


Saenz L.,Wildlife Conservation Society | Saenz L.,King's College London | Mulligan M.,Wildlife Conservation Society | Arjona F.,Conservation International Colombia | Gutierrez T.,BlueSmart
Ecosystem Services | Year: 2014

The conservation of cloud forests has recently been recognized as important for the optimal operation of hydropower infrastructure. However, large areas of cloud forest have been deforested globally, which may suggest that many tropical dams, downstream of these deforested areas, are currently operating at suboptimal levels. This is the case in a country like Colombia where 55% of pre-colonial cloud forests have disappeared. Incentives like Payments for Watershed Services have tried to involve Colombia's energy sector in improved watershed conservation with limited success. Since hydropower companies likely benefit significantly from eco-hydrological services provided by cloud forests, a new generation of incentives for facilitating their engagement in ecosystem protection is desperately needed. Through simulation of the effect of cloud forest restoration on the hydropower output of the Calima dam system, using innovative process based eco-hydrological models and dam operational modeling, we explore the implications of cloud forest restoration for energy security and expansion in Colombia and propose an innovative financial mechanism to help engage energy companies further in improved cloud forest protection in Colombia and beyond. © 2014 Elsevier B.V.


Harvey C.A.,The Betty and Gordon Moore Center for Science and Oceans | Chacon M.,The Betty and Gordon Moore Center for Science and Oceans | Donatti C.I.,The Betty and Gordon Moore Center for Science and Oceans | Garen E.,The Betty and Gordon Moore Center for Science and Oceans | And 22 more authors.
Conservation Letters | Year: 2014

Addressing the global challenges of climate change, food security, and poverty alleviation requires enhancing the adaptive capacity and mitigation potential of agricultural landscapes across the tropics. However, adaptation and mitigation activities tend to be approached separately due to a variety of technical, political, financial, and socioeconomic constraints. Here, we demonstrate that many tropical agricultural systems can provide both mitigation and adaptation benefits if they are designed and managed appropriately and if the larger landscape context is considered. Many of the activities needed for adaptation and mitigation in tropical agricultural landscapes are the same needed for sustainable agriculture more generally, but thinking at the landscape scale opens a new dimension for achieving synergies. Intentional integration of adaptation and mitigation activities in agricultural landscapes offers significant benefits that go beyond the scope of climate change to food security, biodiversity conservation, and poverty alleviation. However, achieving these objectives will require transformative changes in current policies, institutional arrangements, and funding mechanisms to foster broad-scale adoption of climate-smart approaches in agricultural landscapes. ©2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.


Garcia Marquez J.R.,Humboldt University of Berlin | Krueger T.,Humboldt University of Berlin | Paez C.A.,Conservation International Colombia | Ruiz-Agudelo C.A.,Conservation International Colombia | And 3 more authors.
International Journal of Biodiversity Science, Ecosystems Services and Management | Year: 2016

In land planning strategies, methods to quantify ecosystem services (ESs) are now used to complement biodiversity assessments. Tension arises when areas important for biodiversity do not spatially co-occur with important areas for ESs. We investigate the effectiveness of protected areas in simultaneously protecting biodiversity and ESs in central Colombia and identify complementary areas. We map, integrate using a multi-criteria technique and correlate five indicators (sensitive species, ecological systems, habitat quality, scenic beauty and water provision). Reflecting the uncertainty in criteria weights, multiple maps were created and overlain with current protected areas to investigate their effectiveness. A consensus and an uncertainty map were calculated to identify multifunctional areas (high value for biodiversity and high provision of ESs and low uncertainty). Protected areas show low to intermediate levels of effectiveness (3–56% percentage overlap with simulated areas), with water provision being the service least effectively protected. Indicators do not show high levels of correlation (all p < 0.57). Sensitive species are negatively correlated with all other indicators. High representativeness levels were found around the city of Bogotá; still, extensive multifunctional areas are not contemplated under any protection status. We advocate the use of our approach to identify multi-purpose areas that are robust to divergent stakeholder opinions. © 2016 Informa UK Limited, trading as Taylor & Francis Group


PubMed | Federal University of Paraiba, Mamiraua Institute for Sustainable Development, University of Salford, Federal University of Sergipe and 23 more.
Type: Journal Article | Journal: American journal of primatology | Year: 2016

Pitheciids are known for their frugivorous diets, but there has been no broad-scale comparison of fruit genera used by these primates that range across five geographic regions in South America. We compiled 31 fruit lists from data collected from 18 species (three Cacajao, six Callicebus, five Chiropotes, and four Pithecia) at 26 study sites in six countries. Together, these lists contained 455 plant genera from 96 families. We predicted that 1) closely related Chiropotes and Cacajao would demonstrate the greatest similarity in fruit lists; 2) pitheciids living in closer geographic proximity would have greater similarities in fruit lists; and 3) fruit genus richness would be lower in lists from forest fragments than continuous forests. Fruit genus richness was greatest for the composite Chiropotes list, even though Pithecia had the greatest overall sampling effort. We also found that the Callicebus composite fruit list had lower similarity scores in comparison with the composite food lists of the other three genera (both within and between geographic areas). Chiropotes and Pithecia showed strongest similarities in fruit lists, followed by sister taxa Chiropotes and Cacajao. Overall, pitheciids in closer proximity had more similarities in their fruit list, and this pattern was evident in the fruit lists for both Callicebus and Chiropotes. There was no difference in the number of fruit genera used by pitheciids in habitat fragments and continuous forest. Our findings demonstrate that pitheciids use a variety of fruit genera, but phylogenetic and geographic patterns in fruit use are not consistent across all pitheciid genera. This study represents the most extensive examination of pitheciid fruit consumption to date, but future research is needed to investigate the extent to which the trends in fruit genus richness noted here are attributable to habitat differences among study sites, differences in feeding ecology, or a combination of both.

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