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Alkan C.,Howard Hughes Medical Institute | Cardone M.F.,University of Bari | Catacchio C.R.,University of Bari | Antonacci F.,Howard Hughes Medical Institute | And 8 more authors.
Genome Research | Year: 2011

Despite its importance in cell biology and evolution, the centromere has remained the final frontier in genome assembly and annotation due to its complex repeat structure. However, isolation and characterization of the centromeric repeats from newly sequenced species are necessary for a complete understanding of genome evolution and function. In recent years, various genomes have been sequenced, but the characterization of the corresponding centromeric DNA has lagged behind. Here, we present a computational method (RepeatNet) to systematically identify higher-order repeat structures from unassembled whole-genome shotgun sequence and test whether these sequence elements correspond to functional centromeric sequences. We analyzed genome datasets from six species of mammals representing the diversity of the mammalian lineage, namely, horse, dog, elephant, armadillo, opossum, and platypus. We define candidate monomer satellite repeats and demonstrate centromeric localization for five of the six genomes. Our analysis revealed the greatest diversity of centromeric sequences in horse and dog in contrast to elephant and armadillo, which showed high-centromeric sequence homogeneity. We could not isolate centromeric sequences within the platypus genome, suggesting that centromeres in platypus are not enriched in satellite DNA. Our method can be applied to the characterization of thousands of other vertebrate genomes anticipated for sequencing in the near future, providing an important tool for annotation of centromeres. © 2011 by Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press.

Kulemzina A.I.,Russian Academy of Sciences | Yang F.,Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute | Trifonov V.A.,Russian Academy of Sciences | Ryder O.A.,Conservation and Research for Endangered Species CRES | And 2 more authors.
Chromosome Research | Year: 2011

Abstact: Although Tragulidae, as the basal family in Ruminantia phylogenetic tree, is the key taxon for understanding the early chromosome evolution of extant ruminants, comparative molecular cytogenetic data on the tragulids are scarce. Here, we present the first genome-wide comparative map of the Java mouse deer (Tragulus javanicus, Tragulidae) revealed by chromosome painting with human and dromedary probes. Together with the published comparative maps of major representative cetartiodactyl species established with the same set of probes, our results allowed us to reconstruct a 2n∈=∈48 Ruminantia ancestral karyotype, which is similar to the cetartiodactyl ancestral karyotype. The karyotype evolution of T. javanicus has involved multiple rearrangements, most of which appear to be apomorphic and have not found in karyotype evolution of pecoran species (i.e., Ruminantia excluding Tragulidae). The rate of chromosome evolution of the mouse deer was rather low-0.4 R/Ma, while the estimated tempo of chromosome changes on the lineages leading from Cetartiodactyla ancestor to Ruminantia and from Ruminantia to Pecora were roughly the same (about 1.2 R/Ma). © 2011 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.

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