Conservacion Internacional

Tuxtla Gutiérrez, Mexico

Conservacion Internacional

Tuxtla Gutiérrez, Mexico
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Jose Alava J.,University of British Columbia | Jose Alava J.,Coastal Ocean Research Institute | Tatar B.,Ulsan National Institute of Science and Technology | Jose Barragan M.,Leibniz Center for Tropical Marine Ecology | And 7 more authors.
Marine Policy | Year: 2017

Bycatch of marine fauna by small-scale (artisanal) fisheries is an important anthropogenic mortality source to several species of cetaceans, including humpback whales and odontocetes, in Ecuador's marine waters. Long-term monitoring actions and varied conservation efforts have been conducted by non-governmental organizations along the Ecuadorian coast, pointing toward the need for a concerted mitigation plan and actions to hamper cetaceans' bycatch. Nevertheless, little has currently been done by the government and regional authorities to address marine mammal interactions with fisheries in eastern Pacific Ocean artisanal fisheries. This study provides a review of Ecuador's current status concerning cetacean bycatch, and explores the strengths and weaknesses of past and current programs aiming to tackle the challenges of bycatch mitigation. To bolster our appraisal of the policies, a synthesis of fishers' perceptions of the bycatch problem is presented in concert with recommendations for fostering fishing community-based conservation practices integrated with policies to mitigate cetacean bycatch. Our appraisal, based upon the existing literature, indicates a situation of increasing urgency. Taking into consideration the fishers' perceptions and attitudes, fisheries governance in Ecuador should draw inspiration from a truly bottom-up, participatory framework based on stakeholder engagement processes; if it is based on a top-down, regulatory approach, it is less likely to succeed. To carry out this process, a community-based conservation programs to provide conditions for empowering fishing communities is recommend. This would serve as an initial governance framework for fishery policy for conserving marine mammals while maximizing the economic benefits from sustainable small-scale fisheries in Ecuador. © 2017 Elsevier Ltd.


Fernandez M.,German Center for Integrative Biodiversity Research iDiv Halle Jena Leipzig | Fernandez M.,University of California at Berkeley | Fernandez M.,Higher University of San Andrés | Navarro L.M.,German Center for Integrative Biodiversity Research iDiv Halle Jena Leipzig | And 47 more authors.
Biodiversity | Year: 2015

Pragmatic methods to assess the status of biodiversity at multiple scales are required to support conservation decision-making. At the intersection of several major biogeographic zones, Bolivia has extraordinary potential to develop a monitoring strategy aligned with the objectives of the Group on Earth Observations Biodiversity Observation Network (GEO BON). Bolivia, a GEO Observer since 2005, is already working on the adequacy of national earth observations towards the objectives of the Global Earth Observation System of Systems (GEOSS). However, biodiversity is still an underrepresented component in this initiative. The integration of biodiversity into Bolivia’s GEO framework would confirm the need for a country level biodiversity monitoring strategy, fundamental to assess the progress towards the 2020 Aichi targets. Here we analyse and discuss two aspects of the process of developing such a strategy: (1) identification of taxonomic, temporal and spatial coverage of biodiversity data to detect both availability and gaps; and (2) evaluation of issues related to the acquisition, integration and analyses of multi-scale and multi-temporal biodiversity datasets. Our efforts resulted in the most comprehensive biodiversity database for the country of Bolivia, containing 648,534 records for 27,534 species referenced in time and space that account for 92.5% of the species previously reported for the country. We capitalise this information into recommendations for the implementation of the Bolivian Biodiversity Observation Network that will help ensure that biodiversity is sustained as the country continues on its path of development. © 2015 The Author(s). Published by Taylor & Francis.


Fernandez M.,German Center for Integrative Biodiversity Research iDiv Halle Jena Leipzig | Fernandez M.,Higher University of San Andrés | Navarro L.M.,German Center for Integrative Biodiversity Research iDiv Halle Jena Leipzig | Apaza-Quevedo A.,German Center for Integrative Biodiversity Research iDiv Halle Jena Leipzig | And 45 more authors.
Biodiversity | Year: 2015

Pragmatic methods to assess the status of biodiversity at multiple scales are required to support conservation decision-making. At the intersection of several major biogeographic zones, Bolivia has extraordinary potential to develop a monitoring strategy aligned with the objectives of the Group on Earth Observations Biodiversity Observation Network (GEO BON). Bolivia, a GEO Observer since 2005, is already working on the adequacy of national earth observations towards the objectives of the Global Earth Observation System of Systems (GEOSS). However, biodiversity is still an underrepresented component in this initiative. The integration of biodiversity into Bolivia’s GEO framework would confirm the need for a country level biodiversity monitoring strategy, fundamental to assess the progress towards the 2020 Aichi targets. Here we analyse and discuss two aspects of the process of developing such a strategy: (1) identification of taxonomic, temporal and spatial coverage of biodiversity data to detect both availability and gaps; and (2) evaluation of issues related to the acquisition, integration and analyses of multi-scale and multi-temporal biodiversity datasets. Our efforts resulted in the most comprehensive biodiversity database for the country of Bolivia, containing 648,534 records for 27,534 species referenced in time and space that account for 92.5% of the species previously reported for the country. We capitalise this information into recommendations for the implementation of the Bolivian Biodiversity Observation Network that will help ensure that biodiversity is sustained as the country continues on its path of development. © 2015 Biodiversity Conservancy International


Alvarado J.J.,University of Costa Rica | Beita-Jimenez A.,University of Costa Rica | Mena S.,University of Costa Rica | Fernandez-Garcia C.,University of Costa Rica | And 2 more authors.
Revista de Biologia Tropical | Year: 2016

Isla del Coco has one of the most diverse and well-conserved coral reefs in Costa Rica. These reefs have been extensively studied since the 1980’s, however those studies focused mainly on coral coverage. The aim of this study is to evaluate the coral reefs of the island, not only by the coverage of the substrate but also the composition of fish, invertebrates and reef complexity. A total of 17 sites around the island were sampled in July 2013 and in February-March 2014 At each site, we evaluated three depths (4-8 m, 9-12 m and 13-16 m), where three 10m long transects were sampled. Turf algae was the predominant substrate cover with 38.18±5.58 %. The crustose calcareous algae (Order Corallinales) had a 28.12±5.85 % cover and live coral was 18.64±3.55 %, with Porites lobata as the main reef builder. A total of 18 taxa of macroinvertebrates were observed in the study sites, of which 56 % of the species were not abundant, 33 % were common, and the sea urchin Diadema mexicanum was the only dominant species. The density of lobsters of the genus Panulirus was 388±385 ind ha-1, which is the highest density reported in the Eastern Tropical Pacific. Also we observed high densities of the sea cucumber Isostichopus fuscus (550 ind ha-1), which has a high commercial value. We recorded 45 338 fish individuals, distributed in 93 species, with an average of 1.2±8.5 tn ha-1 From the total of species, 51 % were uncommon, 31 % common, 11 % predominant and 8 % occasional. The fish community at Isla del Coco is represented by a large number of carnivorous species, followed by top predators, herbivores and planktivorous species. According to the fish categories of the IUCN Red List, 16 % of species are in threatened categories and represent 25 % of the total sampled biomass. When comparing with studies carried out from 1987 to the present, the recovery in coral cover over time is evident, mainly due to: 1) a decrease in the pressure of the bioerosive action of D. mexicanum; and 2) the conservation actions that have been taken on the island. This has been translated in complex and more rugose reefs. Isla del Coco reefs are healthy, with functional and complex food webs; where species of high commercial value have large populations. The effectiveness of conservation and management activities in Isla del Coco has resulted in the recovery of the reef communities. © 2016, Universidad de Costa Rica. All rights reserved.


Cortina-Villar S.,Colegio de Mexico | Plascencia-Vargas H.,Colegio de Mexico | Vaca R.,Colegio de Mexico | Schroth G.,Federal University of Pará | And 3 more authors.
Environmental Management | Year: 2012

Livelihoods of people living in many protected areas (PAs) around the world are in conflict with biodiversity conservation. In Mexico, the decrees of creation of biosphere reserves state that rural communities with the right to use buffer zones must avoid deforestation and their land uses must become sustainable, a task which is not easily accomplished. The objectives of this paper are: (a) to analyze the conflict between people's livelihoods and ecosystem protection in the PAs of the Sierra Madre de Chiapas (SMC), paying special attention to the rates and causes of deforestation and (b) to review policy options to ensure forest and ecosystem conservation in these PAs, including the existing payments for environmental services system and improvements thereof as well as options for sustainable land management. We found that the three largest PAs in the SMC are still largely forested, and deforestation rates have decreased since 2000. Cases of forest conversion are located in specific zones and are related to agrarian and political conflicts as well as growing economic inequality and population numbers. These problems could cause an increase in forest loss in the near future. Payments for environmental services and access to carbon markets are identified as options to ensure forest permanence but still face problems. Challenges for the future are to integrate these incentive mechanisms with sustainable land management and a stronger involvement of land holders in conservation. © Springer Science+Business Media, LLC.


Alvarado J.J.,University of Costa Rica | Beita-Jimenez A.,University of Costa Rica | Mena S.,University of Costa Rica | Fernandez-Garcia C.,University of Costa Rica | Guzman-Mora A.G.,Conservacion Internacional
Revista de Biologia Tropical | Year: 2015

Costa Rica is considered one of the 20 most biodiverse countries in the world, which includes its well known reefs ecosystems. Specifically, the South Pacific region, the Osa Conservation Area (ACOSA), holds one of the richest reefs of the country. Even though many of these reefs have been studied since the 1980s, most of them had focused mainly on coral cover condition. Therefore, the present research aims to complete and update an evaluation of the main biological components of ACOSAs reefs ecosystems, using a standard methodology. Between 2013 and 2014, five localities were visited: Dominicalito, Marino Ballena National Park, Caño Island Biological Reserve, Osa Peninsula and Golfo Dulce, on which 27 sites were evaluated. Transects at two depths in each site were done to estimate substrate cover, reef rugosity, macroinvertebrates diversity and density, and reef fishes composition and biomass. Results indicate that ACOSAs reef are moderately complex and on most of them the substrate is dominated by turf (62.7%) and live coral cover is moderate (16.5%). Substrate cover was significantly different between localities, which can be attributed to adverse environmental conditions for reef development (e.g. sedimentation, pollution). However, reefs in Golfo Dulce and Caño Island BR showed a significant coral cover recovery since last studied. Of 35 taxa of macroinvertebrates identified, 58% had low abundance or were observed occasionally. Golfo Dulce presented the highest diversity and density of macroinvertebrates and significant differences were observed between localities. On this group, this study is providing an information baseline of most sites analyzed. The echinoids Diadema mexicanum and Eucidaris thouarsii were the most abundant and the conch (Lobatus galeatus) was reported for many of the sites. Of the 90 species of reef fishes documented, ten were common and with the highest densities. There were no significant differences in the diversity and richness of the reef fishes between localities, but fishes biomass and composition of fish community were different between sites. Caño Islands sites were the most diverse of ACOSA, and presented the highest biomass and trophic levels of the region. Golfo Dulces reef fish composition differs from the other localities. According to the results, ACOSAs reef ecosystems have a high biodiversity. The ecosystems conditions observed indicate that more conservation efforts, sustainable use and effective management of land and marine resources should be implemented. Ecological monitoring will provide the information about trends and the relationship between reef ecosystems state and environmental conditions. © 2015, Universidad de Costa Rica. All rights reserved.

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