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Valencia, Spain

Nuno-Solinis R.,Instituto Vasco Of Innovacion Sanitaria | Fernandez-Cano P.,Merck And Co. | Mira-Solves J.J.,Conselleria de Sanitat | Mira-Solves J.J.,University Miguel Hernandez | And 5 more authors.
Gaceta Sanitaria | Year: 2013

Objective: To present the context, aim and process of designing the Instrument for the Assessment of Chronic Care Models (Instrumento de Evaluación de Modelos de Atención ante la Cronicidad [IEMAC]), which was developed to make the conceptual framework of the chronic care model operational in the Spanish national health system. Methods: The IEMAC was developed by a series of national experts with distinct profiles of expertise using qualitative research techniques. A matrix was built with the dimensions selected as basic for the new model. In each dimension, actions were identified and categorized, creating a taxonomy of components and interventions. The clarity and appropriateness of each intervention, and the degree of evidence to support it, were assessed. The resulting questionnaire was validated by other experts from diverse disciplines and settings. Finally, the IEMAC 1.0 was piloted at macro, meso and micro levels. Results: The IEMAC is a tool to be self-administered by health organizations at macro, meso and micro levels. This instrument is composed of six dimensions, 27 components and 80 interventions, whose implementation is assessed with the aid of a scale that combines deployment, systematic evaluation, and orientation improvement. The IEMAC uses a systemic, population-based approach and integrates promotion, prevention, and coordination with social services. Conclusions: The IEMAC contains a set of interventions that can be used as a road map by decision makers, managers and clinicians interested in building a state-of-the-art chronic care model. At the same time, the IEMAC allows healthcare organizations to identify their baseline score and the progress achieved after improvement interventions. © 2011 SESPAS. Source

Mira J.J.,Centro Salud Hospital Pia | Mira J.J.,University Miguel Hernandez | Nebot C.,Conselleria de Sanitat | Lorenzo S.,Hospital Universitario Fundacion Alcorcion | Perez-Jover V.,University Miguel Hernandez
Quality and Safety in Health Care | Year: 2010

Objective To analyse the frequency of adverse events to treatment reported by patients in relation to consultation time, attention from their usual doctor and information provided by their doctor about treatment. Design Descriptive study. Patients were invited to respond to a telephone survey. Setting 21 Primary Care health centres in Spain. Participants 15 282 patients attended by GPs or paediatricians (error of 1% for p=q=0.50, α 95%) were selected at random from the total consultations recorded in 1 month. For sampling, quotas were assigned for type of attention, age and sex. In the case of children (under 14 years), the survey was answered by their parents. Main outcome measures Patients' report on frequency of unexpected or adverse reaction to a treatment; whether informed or not about possible complications of the treatment and precautions to take; consultation time; and whether or not patient is usually seen by the same doctor. Results 1557 (17.6%, CI 95% 16.8 to 18.4%) of the adults and 867 (13.7%, 95% CI 12.8 to 14.5%) of the children reported adverse or unexpected reactions to the treatment according to patients' reports. Consultation time (OR 0.5, 95% CI 0.4 to 0.5), doctor rotation at the health centre (OR 2.04, 95% CI 1.85 to 2.25) and information on treatment precautions (OR 0.47, 95% CI 0.43 to 0.53) determine the higher risk of adverse reactions to treatment. Conclusions Planning at health centres should involve the monitoring of mean consultation time and doctor rotation as indirect indicators of safety. Furthermore, protocols related to the information provided to patients should be reviewed. Source

Carpio Gesta M.L.,Conselleria de Sanitat | Redondo Gallego M.J.,University of Valencia | Ballester i Diez F.,University of Valencia
Pediatria de Atencion Primaria | Year: 2016

Introduction: violence against children is never justifiable and can be prevented by acting on the factors that trigger violent behaviors. Knowing the magnitude and nature of violence against children allows us to undertake the changes that will contribute to reduce their frequency and severity. Methods: in this paper, mortality and hospital admissions due to violence among children under 15 years from 2007 to 2011 in the Valencian Autonomous Community is analysed. Results: 12 deaths and 156 hospital admissions were registered. Boys’ deaths were three times as frequent as those of girls. The deaths were more frequent in children under one year, followed by 10-14 years. The six cases of suicide occurred in the group of 10-14 years and the methods used were: hanging, strangulation or suffocation; and jumping from a high place. There were twice as many killings in children of 0-9 years. Girls were hospitalized due to violence twice as often as boys. Hospital admissions were 7 times as high in the group of 10-14 years, 3 times as high in foreigners, twice as high in residents in rural areas and twice as high if there was a risk of social exclusion, with these differences being statistically significant. Hospital admissions from self-inflicted violence were twice as high (attempted suicide with drugs) as those caused by assault (beating, stabbing and rape). Conclusions: the number of cases found is numerically small but of great epidemiological and public health significance. Axes of inequality in health due to violence in childhood are highlighted as well as the need of improving the notification of cases and the coordination in all areas related to childcare. Linking information sources and returning the information to professionals is relevant as well as training them. © 2016, Spanish Association of Primary Care Pediatrics. All Rights Reserved. Source

Redondo M.T.,Spanish University for Distance Education (UNED) | Beltran-Brotons J.L.,Conselleria de Sanitat | Reales J.M.,Spanish University for Distance Education (UNED) | Ballesteros S.,Spanish University for Distance Education (UNED)
Experimental Gerontology | Year: 2016

Objectives The present study investigated whether the performance on executive function tasks of patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is as impaired as that of Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients and to compare their performance with that of a group of cognitively healthy older adults. We also investigated whether glycosylated hemoglobin levels (HbA1c, a measure of glucose regulation) are related to performance on executive control tasks. Methods Three groups of participants (AD, T2DM, and healthy older adults) completed medical and psychological evaluations and performed a series of computerized tasks, including processing speed (simple and choice reaction time) tasks, verbal and visuospatial working memory (WM) updating (n-back) tasks, and the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST), to assess processing speed and executive functioning. Results As expected, the results showed that AD patients performed significantly worse than the healthy older adult group in all tasks. Executive functions deteriorated in the two groups of patients but more in the AD group. The T2DM group differed from healthy older controls but not from AD patients in the percentage of perseverations and the percentage of perseverative errors (WCST). Conclusions These findings revealed working memory (updating and maintenance) and executive control declines in the T2DM compared to healthy older controls but smaller than that suffered by the AD patients. The impairment of executive processing of T2DM patients despite the glycosylated hemoglobin control suggests that these patients are at risk of developing AD. © 2016 Source

Nebot C.,Direccion General de Calidad y Atencion Al Paciente | Ortega B.,Direccion General de Calidad y Atencion Al Paciente | Mira J.J.,Conselleria de Sanitat | Mira J.J.,University Miguel Hernandez | Ortiz L.,University Miguel Hernandez
Gaceta Sanitaria | Year: 2010

Objective: To describe the profile of persons who exercise their right to draw up a living will, to analyze physicians' knowledge of living wills and attitudes toward them, and to compare the regulations pertaining to this right in the distinct autonomous regions of Spain. Method: A descriptive study that included an analysis of a systematic sample of 931 living wills registered in the autonomous region of Valencia (Spain), a self-administered structured questionnaire administered to a sample of 84 physicians working in emergency departments and intensive care units (45% response rate), and a comparison of the regional legislation covering living wills. Results: A total of 1.6% of inhabitants aged 16 or over had registered a living will (female/male ratio: 1.8/1). Most (73.8%) used a standard document drawn up by a particular religious faith. The most common reasons for writing a living will were to limit therapeutic efforts (99%) and obtain pain-relieving drugs (98%). Although 61 physicians (72.6%) frequently attended the terminally ill, only 6% consulted the register of living wills in these situations and 28% did not know how to consult this register. There is wide variation among regions in the minimum age for registering a living will, in the procedure to be followed if the signer is pregnant, in designating a person as having the authority to make a living will, and in the number of registration points available to deposit livingwills. Conclusions: Most persons registering a living will are healthy individuals with a particular religious faith who reject certain treatments. Most health professionals do not check whether critically ill patients have made a living will. Exercising the rights contained in living wills is complicated by the diversity of criteria among different regions. © 2009 SESPAS. Source

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